Advantages of Wildlife ConservationWildlife conservation is the mode of protecting endangered animals and plant species and their habitats. Wildlife conservation also ensures that the future generations can enjoy and recognize the importance of wildlife and lands of wilderness. In many nations, government agencies are dedicated to wildlife conservation. These agencies help to implement the policies that are designed to protect wildlife. There are many non-profit organizations that also promote causes of wildlife conservation. Conservation of wildlife has become and increasing important practice due to the effects that are caused by human activity on wildlife. Human activity has negative effects on wildlife resulting in animal extinction, habitat loss etc.
Threats to wildlife are as below:
- Habitat loss: There is loss of wildlife habitat every year. Destruction, degradation and fragmentation of habitat is the primary reason for habitat loss and wildlife survival.
- Human activities like agriculture, gas and oil extraction and development of water diversion have dramatically changed the ecosystem.
- Over exploitation of resources,
- Unregulated poaching and hunting,
- Global warming and climate change.
Wildlife conservation could benefit human existence in the following ways:
- Medically and scientifically
- Aesthetic and recreational activities and
- Economically benefits of wildlife were focused on the plants and animals being source of food.
- Currently they are economically beneficial having outdoor recreational activities.
- Medically conservation of wildlife is important as about 80% of the world's population extract their source of medicine from plants.
- Plants also help produce more oxygen, regulate water sources and also convert solar energy to chemical energy.
- Creating wildlife aesthetic wildlife is the main motivation for recreational activities.
- Conservation of wildlife can also give way to ecotourism. Ecotourism is a potential source of revenue in many countries.
- Wildlife conservation will have good effect on other resources of the ecosystem.
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In the United States, a conservation easement (also called a conservation covenant or conservation restriction) is an encumbrance— sometimes including a transfer of usage rights (easement) — which creates a legally enforceable land preservation agreement between a landowner and a government agency (municipality, county, state, federal) or a qualified land protection organization (often called a "land trust"), for the purposes of conservation. It restricts real estate development, commercial and industrial uses, and certain other activities on a property to a mutually agreed upon level. The property remains the private property of the landowner.
The decision to place a conservation easement on a property is strictly a voluntary one where the easement is sold or donated. The restrictions of the easement, once set in place, "run with the land" and are binding on all future owners of the property (in other words, the restrictions are perpetual). The restrictions are spelled out in a legal document that is recorded in the local land records and the easement becomes a part of the chain of title for the property. Appraisals of the value of the easement, and financial arrangements between the parties (land owner and land trust), generally are kept private.
The primary purpose of a conservation easement is to protect land from certain forms of development or use. Lands for which conservation easements may be desirable include agricultural land, timber resources, and/or other valuable natural resources such as wildlifehabitat, clean water, clean air, or scenic open space. Protection is achieved primarily by separating the right to subdivide and build on the land from the other rights of ownership. The landowner who gives up these "development rights" continues to privately own and manage the land and may receive significant state and federal tax advantages for having donated and/or sold the conservation easement. Perhaps more importantly, the landowner has contributed to the public good by preserving the conservation values associated with their land for future generations. In accepting the conservation easement, the easement holder has a responsibility to monitor future uses of the land to ensure compliance with the terms of the easement and to enforce the terms if a violation occurs.
Although a conservation easement prohibits certain uses by the landowner, such an easement does not make the land public. On the contrary, many conservation easements confer no use of the land either to the easement holder or to the public. Furthermore, many conservation easements reserve to the landowner specific uses which if not reserved would be prohibited. Some conservation easements confer specific uses to the easement holder or to the public. These details are spelled out in the legal document that creates the conservation easement.
Income Tax Deductions
Landowners who donate a "qualifying" conservation easement to a "qualified" land protection organization under the regulations set forth in 170(h) of the Internal Revenue Code may be eligible for a federal income tax deduction equal to the value of their donation. The value of the easement donation, as determined by a qualified appraiser, equals the difference between the fair market value of the property before and after the easement takes effect.
To qualify for this income tax deduction, the easement must be: a) perpetual; b) held by a qualified governmental or non-profit organization; and, c) serve a valid "conservation purpose," meaning the property must have an appreciable natural, scenic, historic, scientific, recreational, or open space value. As a result of new legislation signed by President George W. Bush on August 17, 2006 (H.R. 4 - The Pensions Protection Act of 2006), in 2006 and 2007, conservation easement donors may deduct the value of their gift at the rate of 50% of their adjusted gross income (AGI) per year. Further, landowners with 50% or more of their income from agriculture may be able to deduct the donation at a rate of 100% of their AGI. Any amount of the donation remaining after the first year can be carried forward for fifteen additional years (allowing a maximum of sixteen years within which the deduction may be utilized), or until the amount of the deduction has been used up, whichever comes first. With the passage of the Farm Bill in the summer of 2008 these expanded federal income tax incentives were extended such that they also apply to all conservation easements donated in 2008 and 2009.
Income Tax Credits
A few states offer income tax credits for conservation easements, and in New Mexico, Colorado, South Carolina, and Virginia these credits are transferable. A landowner (e.g., a rancher or farmer) who donates all or a portion of a conservation easement valued in excess of the landowner's income can transfer (sell) any unused portion of the tax credit to another taxpayer. This helps a "land rich, cash poor" landowner to realize the development value of the land without developing the land.
The New Mexico tax credit, effective January 1, 2008, applies retroactively to conservation easements effected from January 1, 2004.
Estate Tax Reductions and Exclusions
For landowners who will leave sizable estates upon their death, the most important financial impact of a conservation easement may be a significant reduction in estate taxes. Estate taxes often make it difficult for heirs to keep land intact and in the family because of high estate tax rates and high development value of land. It may be necessary to subdivide or sell land for development in order to pay these taxes which may not be the desire of the landowner or their heirs. A conservation easement can often provide significant help with this problem in three important ways:
- Reduction in Value of Estate. The deceased's estate will be reduced by the value of the donated conservation easement. As a result, taxes will be lower because heirs will not be required to pay taxes on the extinguished development rights. In other words, heirs will only have to pay estate taxes on preserved farmland values, and not full development values.
- Estate Exclusion. Section 2031(c) of the tax code provides further estate tax incentives for properties subject to a donated conservation easement. When property has a qualified conservation easement placed upon it, up to an additional 40% of the value of l
From Yahoo Answers
Answers:All wildlife play a critical role in doing things for our Earth. Polar bear control the artic fish population. If they, become extinct the artic sea waters would become over "crowded". Seals eat artic algae and artic algae suck up all the O2 in water and if the algae population got out of hand there wouldnt be an o2 in the water and the waters would then become inhabitibal by fish. Marshlands are key in filtering the polluted waters of sea water. Many animals call these marshlands home, yet the U.S. marshlands are threatened by hotels, resorts, and building porjects.
Answers:Another disadvantage is that perhaps the current wildlife conservation actions are doing more harm then good. Or that they are favouring certain plant or animal species over that of others (which may be more important for the ecosystem). For example the invertebrates are considered the most the important animals in most ecosystems yet how often to you hear about policy or conservation of invertebrates? The "cute and cuddly" come first ... which may actually be disadvantageous for the ecosystem. Also sometimes people think that they are conserving the environment but may actually be doing detrimental things to the environment. This is largely because environmental conservation is a trial and error management tool ... and unfortunately politics nowadays does not allow managers to fail ... therefore new techniques and better techniques may not be carried out in environmental management because of the political risk of failure (or making a mistake). It is also important to realise that wildlife does not just mean animals. It includes plants too. I think the advantages would be easier enough to find on the web ...
Answers:I think any money put towards conservation at any level is well spent. We are the Earths care takers, not take overs. I think you should do your own homework. Obviously this was a question for you and not for other YA users.
Answers:I dont think enough money is spent on maintaining and protecting the environment. Those numbers are estimates, and not very reliable. It is definitely money well spent, but its not enough. We are the cause for the devistation on earth, so we must do our best to stop this or reverse our effects.