Advantages of Heating Effect of Electric Current
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Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are currents induced in conductors, opposing the change in flux that generated them. It is caused when a conductor is exposed to a changing magnetic field due to relative motion of the field source and conductor; or due to variations of the field with time. This can cause a circulating flow of electrons, or a current, within the body of the conductor. These circulating eddies of current create induced magnetic fields that oppose the change of the original magnetic field due to Lenz's law, causing repulsive or drag forces between the conductor and the magnet. The stronger the applied magnetic field, or the greater the electrical conductivity of the conductor, or the faster the field that the conductor is exposed to changes, then the greater the currents that are developed and the greater the opposing field.
Eddy currents, like all electric currents, generate heat as well as electromagnetic forces. The heat can be harnessed for induction heating. The electromagnetic forces can be used for levitation, creating movement, or to give a strong braking effect. Eddy currents can also have undesirable effects, for instance power loss in transformers. In this application, they are minimised with thin plates, by lamination of conductors or other details of conductor shape.
Self-induced eddy currents are responsible for the skin effect in conductors. The latter can be used for non-destructive testing of materials for geometry features, like micro-cracks. A similar effect is the proximity effect, which is caused by externally-induced eddy currents.
The first person to observe current eddies was FranÃ§ois Arago (1786-1853), the 25th president of France, who was also a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. In 1824 he observed what has been called rotatory magnetism, and the fact that most conductive bodies could be magnetized; these discoveries were completed and explained by Michael Faraday (1791-1867).
In 1834, Heinrich Lenz stated Lenz's law, which says that the direction of induced current flow in an object will be such that its magnetic field will oppose the magnetic field that caused the current flow. Eddy currents develop secondary flux that cancels a part of the external flux.
French physicist LÃ©on Foucault (1819-1868) is credited with having discovered Eddy currents. In September, 1855, he discovered that the force required for the rotation of a copper disc becomes greater when it is made to rotate with its rim between the poles of a magnet, the disc at the same time becoming heated by the eddy current induced in the metal. The first use of eddy current for Non-destructive testing occurred in 1879 when D. E. Hughes used the principles to conduct metallurgical sorting tests.
When a conductor moves relative to the field generated by a source, electromotive forces (EMFs) can be generated around loops within the conductor. These EMFs acting on the resistivity of the material generate a current around the loop, in accordance with Faraday's law of induction. These currents dissipate energy, and create a magnetic field that tends to oppose the changes in the field.
Eddy currents are created when a conductor experiences changes in the magnetic field. If either the conductor is moving through a steady magnetic field, or the magnetic field is changing around a stationary conductor, eddy currents will occur in the conductor. Both effects are present when a conductor moves through a varying magnetic field, as is the case at the top and bottom edges of the magnetized region shown in the diagram. Eddy currents will be generated wherever a conducting object experiences a change in the intensity or direction of the magnetic field at any point within it, and not just at the boundaries.
The swirling current set up in the conductor is due to electrons experiencing a Lorentz force that is perpendicular to their motion. Hence, they veer to their right, or left, depending on the direction of the applied field and whether the strength of the field is increasing or declining. The resistivity of the conductor acts to damp the amplitude of the eddy currents, as well as straighten their paths. Lenz's law encapsulates the fact that the current swirls in such a way as to create an induced magnetic field that opposes the phenomenon that created it. In the case of a varying applied field, the induced field will always be in the opposite direction to that applied. The same will be true when a varying external field is increasing in strength. However, when a varying field is falling in strength, the induced field will be in the same direction as that originally applied, in order to oppose the decline.
An object or part of an object experiences steady field intensity and direction where there is still relative motion of the field and the object (for example in the center of the field in the diagram), or unsteady fields where the currents cannot circulate due to the geometry of the conductor. In these situations charges collect on or within the object and these charges then produce static electric potentials that oppose any further current. Currents may be initially associated with the creation of static potentials, but these may be transitory and small.
Eddy currents generate resistive losses that transform some forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, into heat. This Joule heating reduces efficiency of iron-core transformers and electric motors and other devices that use changing magnetic fields. Eddy currents are minimized in these devices by selecting
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors, such as copper or aluminum, the movable charged particles are electrons (see electrical conduction). Positive charges may also be mobile in the form of atoms in a lattice that are missing electrons (known as holes), or in the form of ions, such as in the electrolyte of a battery. Insulators are non-conducting materials with fewer mobile charges, which resist the flow of electric current.
All conductors contain electric charges which will move when an electric potential difference (measured in volts) is applied across separate points on the material. This flow of charge (measured in amperes) is what is meant by electric current. In most materials, the direct current is proportional to the voltage (as determined by Ohm's law), provided the temperature remains constant and the material remains in the same shape and state.
Most familiar conductors are metallic. Copper is the most common material used for electrical wiring. Silver is the best conductor, but is expensive. Because it does not corrode, gold is used for high-quality surface-to-surface contacts. However, there are also many non-metallic conductors, including graphite, solutions of salts, and all plasmas. There are even conductive polymers. See electrical conduction for more information on the physical mechanism for charge flow in materials.
All non-superconducting materials offer some resistance and warm up when a current flows. Thus, proper design of an electrical conductor takes into account the temperature that the conductor needs to be able to endure without damage, as well as the quantity of electric current. The motion of charges also creates an electromagnetic field around the conductor that exerts a mechanical radial squeezing force on the conductor. A conductor of a given material and volume (length Ã— cross-sectional area) has no real limit to the current it can carry without being destroyed as long as the heat generated by the resistive loss is removed and the conductor can withstand the radial forces. This effect is especially critical in printed circuits, where conductors are relatively small and close together, and inside an enclosure: the heat produced, if not properly removed, can cause fusing (melting) of the tracks.
Thermal and electrical conductivity often go together. For instance, most metals are both electrical and thermal conductors. However, some materials are practical electrical conductors without being good thermal conductors.
In many countries, conductors are measured by their cross section in square millimeters. However, in the United States, conductors are measured by American wire gauge for smaller ones, and circular mils for larger ones.
Of the metals commonly used for conductors, copper has a high conductivity. Silver is more conductive, but due to cost it is not practical in most cases. However, it is used in specialized equipment, such as satellites, and as a thin plating to mitigate skin effect losses at high frequencies. Because of its ease of connection by soldering or clamping, copper is still the most common choice for most light-gauge wires.
Aluminium has been used as a conductor in housing applications for cost reasons. It is actually more conductive than copper when compared by unit weight, but it has technical problems that have led to problems when used for household and similar wiring, sometimes having led to structural fires:
- a tendency to form an electrically resistive surface oxide within connections, leading to heat cycling of the connection (unless protected by a well-maintained protective paste);
- a tendency to "creep" under thermal cycling, causing connections to get looser due to a low mechanical yield point of the aluminium; and
- a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from the materials used for connections, accelerating the creep problem and addressed by using only plugs, switches, and splices rated specifically for aluminium.
These problems do not affect other uses, and aluminium is commonly used for the low voltage "drop" between a power pole and the household meter. It is also the most common metal used in high-voltage transmission lines, in combination with steel as structural reinforcement.
The surface of anodized aluminium does not conduct electricity, and sometimes this must be considered when aluminium enclosures are to be electrically bonded for safety or to enclose or exclude electromagnetic radiation.
The ampacity of a conductor, that is, the amount of current it can carry, is related to its electrical resistance: a lower-resistance conductor can carry more current. The resistance, in turn, is determined by the material the conductor is made from (as described above) and the conductor's size. For a given material, conductors with a larger cross-sectional area have less resistance than conductors with a smaller cross-sectional area.
Electric shock occurs upon contact of a (human) body with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles or hair. Typically, the expression is used to denote an unwanted exposure to electricity, hence the effects are considered undesirable. The minimum current a human can feel is thought to be about 1 milliampere (mA) that's .001A, but this is highly dependent on the frequency of the signal. The current may cause tissue damage or fibrillation if it is sufficiently high. Death caused by an electric shock is referred to as electrocution. Generally, currents approaching 100 mA are lethal if they pass through sensitive portions of the body.
If the voltage is less than 200 V, then the human skin, more precisely the stratum corneum, is the main contributor to the impedance of the body in the case of a macroshock— the passing of current between two contact points on the skin. The characteristics of the skin are non-linear however. If the voltage is above 450â€“600 V, then dielectric breakdown of the skin occurs.
If an electrical circuit is established by electrodes introduced in the body, bypassing the skin, then the potential for lethality is much higher if a circuit though the heart is established. This is known as a microshock. Currents of only 10 ÂµA can be sufficient to cause fibrillation in this case. This is a concern in modern hospital settings when the patient is connected to multiple devices.
Signs and symptoms
Heating due to resistance can cause extensive and deep burns. Voltage levels of 500 to 1000 volts tend to cause internal burns due to the large energy (which is proportional to the duration multiplied by the square of the voltage divided by resistance) available from the source. Damage due to current is through tissue heating. It is a relatively unknown fact that more electrical workers die from burns than from an electric shock, in fact only around 20% die from the effects of shock.
A domestic power supply voltage (110 or 230 V), 50 or 60 Hz AC current through the chest for a fraction of a second may induce ventricular fibrillation at currents as low as 60 mA. With DC, 300 to 500 mA is required. If the current has a direct pathway to the heart (e.g., via a cardiac catheter or other kind of electrode), a much lower current of less than 1 mA (AC or DC) can cause fibrillation. If not immediately treated by defibrillation, fibrillations are usually lethal because all the heart muscle cells move independently instead of in the coordinated pulses needed to pump blood to maintain circulation. Above 200 mA, muscle contractions are so strong that the heart muscles cannot move at all.
Current can cause interference with nervous control, especially over the heart and lungs. Repeated or severe electric shock which does not lead to death has been shown to cause neuropathy. Recent research has found that functional differences in neural activation during spatial working memory and implicit learning oculomotor tasks have been identified in electrical shock victims.
When the current path is through the head, it appears that, with sufficient current, loss of consciousness almost always occurs swiftly. (This is borne out by some limited self-experimentation by early designers of the electric chair and by research from the field of animal husbandry, where electric stunning has been extensively studied.)
One major corporation found that up to 80 percent of its electrical injuries involve thermal burns due to arcing faults. The arc flash in an electrical fault produces the same type of light radiation from which electric welders protect themselves using face shields with dark glass, heavy leather gloves, and full-coverage clothing. The heat produced may cause severe burns, especially on unprotected flesh. The blast produced by vaporizing metallic components can break bones and irreparably damage internal organs. The degree of hazard present at a particular location can be determined by a detailed analysis of the electrical system, and appropriate protection worn if the electrical work must be performed with the electricity on.
The voltage necessary for electrocution depends on the current through the body and the duration of the current. Ohm's law states that the current drawn depends on the resistance of the body. The resistance of human skin varies from person to person and fluctuates between different times of day. The NIOSH states "Under dry conditions, the resistance offered by the human body may be as high as 100,000 Ohms. Wet or broken skin may drop the body's resistance to 1,000 Ohms," adding that "high-voltage electrical energy quickly breaks down human skin, reducing the human body's resistance to 500 Ohms."
The International Electrotechnical Commission gives the following values for the total body impedance of a hand to hand circuit for dry skin, large contact areas, 50 Hz AC currents (the columns contain the distribution of the impedance in the population percentile; for example at 100 V 50% of the population had an impedance of 1875Î© or less):
Point of entry
- Macroshock: Current across intact skin and through the body. Current from arm to arm, or between an arm and a foot, is likely to traverse the heart, therefore it is much more dangerous than current between a leg and the ground. This type of shock by definition must pass into the body through the skin.
- Microshock: Very small, current source with a pathway directly connected to the heart tissue. The shock is required to be a
heating means of making a building comfortably warm relative to a colder outside temperature. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove . In ancient Rome a heating system, called a hypocaust, warmed a building by passing hot gases from a furnace through enclosed passages under the floors and behind the walls before releasing them outside. The principal modern systems that are used to heat a building are classified as warm air, hot water, steam, or electricity. In the warm-air system air, heated in a furnace, rises through warm-air ducts and enters the rooms through outlets, while cooler air in the rooms passes into return ducts that lead back to the furnace. The air circulates through the system by convection, i.e., the tendency of a fluid such as air to rise when warm and sink when cool. In newer buildings the circulation is assisted by a fan. The hot-water system has a boiler for heating the water that is sent through connecting pipes to radiators and convectors, the latter devices being metal enclosures containing hot-water pipes surrounded by metal fins. The circulation is maintained by pumps or, in older buildings, by convection. In the steam-heating system, steam generated in a boiler is circulated by its own pressure (sometimes aided by a vacuum pump) through radiators. There are many kinds of electric heating systems. In one type current is sent through wires into electric resistors that are contained in convectors in rooms. The resistors convert the current into heat. In a radiant panel heating system a room is warmed by heat emitted from wall, floor, or ceiling panels. They are warmed by the circulation of warm air, hot water, or steam or by an electric current in resistors within or behind the panels. Experiments are being made to utilize solar energy for heating buildings. In many large buildings, such as theaters, public libraries, and municipal buildings, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning units are combined in one system. In district heating, heat is distributed from a heating plant to buildings in a section (usually commercial) of a city. Bibliography: See F. Porges, Handbook of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (1982).
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Answers:The most obvious advantages of the heating effect of an electric current is in electric cooking ovens, toasters, electric irons, electric blankets, electric space heaters, hair dryers, curling irons, etc. Electric heating can be the cleanest, safest, and most convenient form of heat energy utilized in a home. Why is heat produced when current is passed through a wire? A metallic conductor has a large number of free electrons in it. When a potential difference is applied across the ends of a metallic wire, the free electrons begin to drift from a region of low potential to a region of high potential. These electrons collide with the positive ions (the atoms which have lost their electrons). In these collisions, the energy of the electron is transferred to the positive ions and they begin to vibrate more violently. As a result, heat is produced. The greater the number of electrons flowing per second, the greater will be the rate of collisions and so greater is the heat produced.
Answers:It's the current in a conductor which causes it to heat up. The higher the voltage, the lower the current assuming the power load stays the same. This is why electric distribution cables are at a very high voltage, so the current isn't as high, otherwise the cables would have to be impractically thick and expensive. If the voltage through a circuit is increased, then so is the current (and also the power, measured in Watts), which would cause an increase in heat. So increasing the voltage across your high resistance wire would cause the heat ( power load ) to increase because the current would also be increased.
Answers:I believe that you are referring to resistance heating. Resistance heaters are used in electric range elements, ovens, electric clothes dryers and in toasters. Electric current is passed through nichrome wire that has high resistance and produces cherry-red heat. The heating is clean and efficient because it is concentrated where it is needed. Electric space heaters are also available in sizes of about one or two kilowatts capacity. These are clean and efficient for heating a single room rather than heat an entire house, perhaps at night when the thermostat for the house is lowered while people sleep. Electric heat in many locations is more expensive than gas or oil which are very popular for central heating. Gas heating is also used for gas ranges and ovens and even clothes dryers (but not household toasters!). I could add that the tungsten element in say a 100 watt lightbulb is a resistance heater in addition to giving light. And ten 100 watt bulbs will heat your house as well as one 1 KW space heater. All electric-power-consuming devices inside the house serve a dual purpose of providing heat in the winter; but unwanted heat in the summer.
Answers:Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. Heat leaves the coffee cup as the currents of steam and air rise. Convection is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents. (It can also happen is some solids, like sand.) The heat moves with the fluid. Consider this: convection is responsible for making macaroni rise and fall in a pot of heated water. The warmer portions of the water are less dense and therefore, they rise. Meanwhile, the cooler portions of the water fall because they are denser. Conduction is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. It is the transfer and distribution of heat energy from atom to atom within a substance. For example, a spoon in a cup of hot soup becomes warmer because the heat from the soup is conducted along the spoon. Conduction is most effective in solids-but it can happen in fluids. Fun fact: Have you ever noticed that metals tend to feel cold? Believe it or not, they are not colder! They only feel colder because they conduct heat away from your hand. You perceive the heat that is leaving your hand as cold. Radiation: Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space. Sunlight is a form of radiation that is radiated through space to our planet without the aid of fluids or solids. The energy travels through nothingness! Just think of it! The sun transfers heat through 93 million miles of space. Because there are no solids (like a huge spoon) touching the sun and our planet, conduction is not responsible for bringing heat to Earth. Since there are no fluids (like air and water) in space, convection is not responsible for transferring the heat. Thus, radiation brings heat to our planet Good Luck!