advantages disadvantages arch bridges

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From Wikipedia

Bridging (networking) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send ... 2 Advantages of network bridges; 3 Disadvantages of network bridges...

Suspension bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[edit] Advantages over other bridge types. A suspension bridge can be made out of simple materials ... [edit] Disadvantages compared with other bridge types ...

Steel building

A steel building is a metal structure fabricated with steel for the internal support and, commonly but not exclusively, for exterior cladding. Such buildings are used for a variety of purposes including storage, office space and living space. They have evolved into specific types depending on how they are used.

History

They first gained popularity in the early 20th century. Their use became more widespread during World War II and significantly expanded after the war when steel became more available. Steel buildings have been widely accepted, in part due to cost efficiency. The range of application has expanded with improved materials, products and design capabilities with the availability of computer aided design software.

Advantages

  • High quality, aesthetic
  • Low maintenance costs
  • Steel is Non combustible
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Components can be re-used
  • Strong, durable and stable
  • Construction is fast compared to other materials
  • Resistant to termites and other destructive insects
  • Cost benefits compared to other construction methods
  • Components are functional

Disadvantages

  • Heat conductivity. Calculations show that the web of an 18-gauge steel stud is about 31 times thinner than a "two-by" wood stud; however, steel conducts heat 310 times more efficiently than wood. As a net result, a "two-by" steel stud will conduct 10 times more heat than a "two-by" wood stud.
  • Corrosion. Faulty design leads to the corrosion of iron and steel in buildings.

Types

Some common types of steel buildings are "straight-walled" and "arch." Further, the structural type may be classed as clear span or multiple span. A clear span building does not have structural supports (e.g. columns) in the interior occupied space.

Straight-walled and arch type refer to the outside shape of the building. More generally, these are both structural arch forms if they rely on a rigid frame structure. However, curved roof structures are typically associated with the arch term.

Steel arch buildings may be cost efficient for specific applications. They are commonly used in the agricultural industry. Straight-walled buildings provide more usable space when compared to arch buildings. They are also easier to blend into existing architecture. Straight-walled buildings are commonly used for commercial, industrial, and many other occupancy types.

Clear span refers to the internal construction. Clear span steel buildings utilize large overhead support beams, thus reducing the need for internal supporting columns. Clear span steel buildings tend to be less cost efficient than structures with interior columns. However, other practical considerations may influence the selection of framing style such as an occupancy where interior structural obstructions are undesirable (e.g. aircraft hangars or sport arenas).

Components

The modern steel building is composed of many individual elements that have evolved over time. Manufacturing efficiencies are derived with mass production of some elements which a manufacturer designs to work in a uniform manner to form a pre-engineered system. With the benefit of Computer Aided Design (CAD) manufacturers have been able to produce more formats and dimensional variations. As a result, the reference to pre-engineered systems is becoming obsolete as more assembly designs are project specific. Building portions that are shop assembled prior to shipment to site are commonly referenced as pre-fabricated. The smaller steel buildings tend to be pre-fabricated or simple enough to be constructed by anyone. The larger steel buildings require skilled construction workers, such as ironworkers, to ensure proper and safe assembly.

There are five main types of structural components that make up a steel structure, they are tension members, compression members, bending members, combined force members and their connections. Tension members are usually found as web and chord members in trusses and open web steel joists. Ideally tension members carry tensile forces, or pulling forces, only and its end connections are assumed to be pinned. Pin connections prevent any moment(rotation) or shear forces from being applied to the member. Compression members are also considered as columns, struts, or posts. They are vertical members or web and chord members in trusses and joists that are in compression or being squished. Bending members are also known as beams, girders, joists, spandrels, purlins, lintels, and girts. Each of these members have their own structural application, but typically bending members will carry bending moments and shear forces as primary loads and axial forces and torsion as secondary loads. Combined force members are commonly known as beam-columns and are subjected to bending and axial compression. Connections are what bring the entire building together. They join these members together and must ensure that they function together as one unit.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:i want to know the advantage of arch bridges

Answers:The advantage is it produces very strong bridges. The disadvantage is that you can't use this technology for long bridges (because the arc gets too high in the middle). ~

Question:

Answers:The best real advantage is the arch is the strongest shape with the least amount of material known. The arch is also the only shape that can use single individual modules of materials, like brick and stone, and be used to span a distance that straight stone spans could never do. The span uses the compressive strength of stone and gravity to allow it to bridge large expanses without the tensile limit presented by the material itself The disadvantage is the shape itself. The curve of an arch makes it difficult to erect and also if you are using steel or concrete you have to form the pieces to fit the curve. It doesn't lend itself to mass production like a "W" tress style does where you can use standard length's just welded together. Plus in building bridges, you tend to have to build a separate deck from the arch structure if you want a fairly level span.

Question:

Answers:Advantages: Lets you get from one side of a river to the other without getting wet. Lets small boats go underneath. Disadvantages: Take time and effort to build. Can't move them like you can a swing bridge.

Question:i need to know for a test and i also need to know the best use of each

Answers:You have named these 3 types of bridge in ascending order of cost. Cost (as always) is the disadvantage. The order you name them also represents their suitability for greater spans Thus we use a plank bridge to span a short distance and for relatively low load. It is inherently quite flexible and will quickly be over-stressed with increasing span or load, however if it is easy to construct many supports along the total span (e.g a shallow well founded river estuary) and the height can be fairly low, then this type of bridge may be viable for long spans Arch bridges are much more rigid and can be applied to medium spans and used for higher loads. They are specially well suited to crossing steep sided ravines since the sides of the ravine can lend good support to the arch and may also form part of the arch structure, saving cost. Suspension bridges are normally used for longer spans where support tower construction from beneath is limited (two towers is normal but some are built with only one) and /or the bridge must have high clearance (for shipping). Their loads are often significantly limited and heavy lifts often have to find an alternative route. Please award one of your answers "Best Answer". That's partly why we do this.

From Youtube

Inmarsat_iSatphone_Pro.mp4 :Inmarsat unveils their first ever Global handheld satellite phone. The Inmarsat iSatphone PRO. This satphone will compete head to head with Iridium, Thuraya and Globalstar handsets. There are advantages and disadvantages of the two different satellite configurations that each one of these companies use. While Iridium and Globalstar use Medium and Low earth Orbiting satellites to relay the services to the ground stations, Inmarsat and Thuraya use Geo-Stationary satellites to connect the handsets to the ground stations. One advantage of a low earth orbiting system is that it reduces the amount of delay in the connection. Geo-stationary satellites are much higher, and although the total time involved is fractions of a second, requires a bit more time for the signal to reach the Geosatellite. Because these satellites are lower, and they are orbiting the earth, that means that during a phone call, you will be switched between several satellites. Similar to using your mobile telephone while driving between cellular towers. This process can result in intermittent connection or dropped calls. This is common in Low earth orbit systems. A Geo system has only one satellite that you communicate with that moves with the earth as it turns. This creates a very stable connection for the duration of the call. It also gives the network flexibility to take longer to tear down a call due to intermittent blockage like driving under a bridge. This system is also referred to as a bent pipe ...