Advantages and Disadvantages of Oxidation
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Answers:Advantages: * Less total energy used to obtain metals * Less release of S0x (Ores of heavy metals are commonly Sulphides) * Less release of CO2 (Oxide ores are commonly reduced with carbon) Disadvantages: * Transportation of recycled metals from diffuse sources is complex & expensive * Skilled labor is required to separate recyclable metals properly
Answers:The advantages of water chlorination: 1. Controls Disease-Causing Bacteria: Disease-causing bacteria may enter the well during construction, repair, flooding or as a result of improper construction. Proper chlorination will kill these bacteria. 2. Controls Nuisance Organisms: Chlorine treatment will control nuisance organisms such as iron, slime and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Iron bacteria feed on the iron in the water. 3. Mineral Removal: Large amounts of iron can be removed from water by adding chlorine to oxidize the clear soluble iron into the filterable reddish insoluble form. Chlorine helps remove manganese and hydrogen sulfide in the same way. The disadvantages of water chlorination: 1. No Nitrate Removal: Chlorine will not remove nitrates from water. The claims of some water treatment firms imply that nitrates can be removed by chlorination. This is not true. Adding chlorine may prevent nitrates from being reduced to the toxic nitrite form; however, nitrates are not removed from water by chlorination. 2. Causes Smell and Bad Taste: Chlorine in water is not poisonous to humans or animals. However, if the concentration is great enough the water will taste bad so consumption may be reduced. Some people object to the smell and/or taste of very small amounts of chlorine. In those cases an activated carbon or charcoal filter may be used to remove the chlorine from the drinking water. 3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are organic chemicals that may form when chlorine is used to treat water supplies that contain humic compounds. Humic compounds form as a part of the decomposition of organic materials such as leaves, grass, wood or animal wastes. Because THMs are very seldom associated with groundwater, they are primarily a concern where surface water supplies are used. Lifetime consumption of water supplies with THMs at a level greater than 0.10 milligrams per liter is considered by the Environmental Protection Agency to be a potential cause of cancer. THMs can be removed from drinking water through use of an activated carbon filter.
Answers:Means of Transport for Adventure Travel There are many different means of transport to get around. Nevertheless, most people take the plane to reach their destinations. And when they set out for longer journeys, they also take the airplane to move between destinations, even if they are not far apart. According to us, taking the airplane is not the most adventurous way of travelling. It will only bring you to big cities or the most popular places, skipping the interesting countryside. And it will not bring you in contact with the locals, who are not using airplanes to get around. And what about those of us who are afraid of flying? And what about the air travel s contribution to global warming? So, lets find out about some alternative means of transport for adventure travel. Do you travel with the locals? For us, adventure travel includes finding your way around by public transport. This is what is often meant by independent travel (or individual travel) as well. A drawback may be that it takes some more time to get around, but on the other hand it is a great way to meet local people, and that s also what travelling is about, isn t it? In general, two types of public transport systems can be identified: the systems that take you from destination to destination, and local systems that help you get around. Should you use the train or the bus? To travel from one destination to another, we prefer to travel by train. Trains are comfortable, without sudden movements, and mostly you can move around in them. More information can be found on our page about Train Travel. In some continents or countries, however, there are little or no rail tracks. To move between destinations there, you will have to take the bus. But buses have their advantages, too. For one, they are often cheaper than trains. So check our page about Bus Travel to know when and where you can take the bus. How do you get around? To get around within a city or region, you need to depend on local transport. However, in every continent, every country, and even in every city, the local public transport system can be different. When travelling to the big cities in for instance Europe, be prepared to learn the specific details of the local subway or bus system again for each city. These are the general guidelines for this: find a public transport map; find out the payment type and discount cards; and get going. In some continents and countries, however, you need to learn the general way of local transport. Read about a few of those on our Rickshaw page. What is meant by Overlanding? Apart from using public transport, there are other means of travelling overland. Bringing your own vehicle is also an option. In urban areas and developed country, this may have some of the disadvantages as air travel: you will only see your destination plus the highway, and you will not meet the locals. In more remote areas, however, you will indeed see much more, and may end up sleeping at the locals in distant villages in the countryside. In these remote regions, you will most likely need a 4x4 vehicle or motorbike, allowing you to go offroad. You can read more about this in this article about Offroad Adventure Travel, written for us by offroad specialist Ron Douglas. If you are adventurous, but not technical enough to go by your own 4x4, consider taking an overland truck. These are organized trips, but other than that, they offer all the excitement of adventure travel. Read more about this way of travelling on out page about Overland Trucks. And check out how to travel Africa Overland. Last, but certainly not least, we would like to mention travelling by bicycle. Agreed, it is slow, but if you have more time on your hands, it is the best way to experience the country and region you are travelling in. You can read more about it in this article about Bike Travel, written for us by experienced bicycle traveller Peter van der Lans. Advantages and Disadvantages The biggest advantage of NGVs is that they reduce environmentally harmful emissions. natural-gas vehicles can achieve up to a 93 percent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions, 33 percent reduction in emissions of various oxides of nitrogen and a 50 percent reduction in reactive hydrocarbons when compared to gasoline vehicles. NGVs also rate higher in particulate matter 10 (PM10) emissions. PM10 particles transport and deposit toxic materials through the air. NGVs that operate in diesel applications can reduce PM10 emissions by a factor of 10. Natural-gas vehicles also offer these benefits: Build vs. Buy NGVs can be built from scratch to include the design enhancements described above. A brand-new natural-gas vehicle costs $4,000 to $8,000 more than a comparable gasoline vehicle. It's also possible to modify conventional gasoline vehicles to run on natural gas. This, too, can be expensive, with the modifications typically costing $3,000 to $5,000. Veh
Answers:The terms solar power and solar energy are often used synonymously but solar power usually refers to photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar thermal technologies that convert sunlight into electricity. In the case of solar PV, the process is direct, via silicon-based cells; in the case of concentrating solar thermal, the process involves heating a transfer fluid to produce steam to run a generator. While PV has advantages in terms of simplicity, the high temperatures produced by solar thermal systems also can provide process heat and steam for a variety of secondary commercial applications (cogeneration). The utilization of solar energy ranges from traditional and basic technologies (related to food, heat and light) to modern, utility-scale power generation systems. Saves you money * After the initial investment has been recovered, the energy from the sun is practically FREE. * The recovery/ payback period for this investment can be very short depending on how much electricity your household uses. * Financial incentives are available form the government that will reduce your cost. (visit www.dsireusa.org to find out about incentives available in the state you live in!). * If your system produces more energy than you use, your utility company can buy it from you, building up a credit on your account! This nifty little scheme is called "net-metering". * It will save you money on your electricity bill if you have one at all. * Solar energy does not require any fuel. * It's not affected by the supply and demand of fuel and is therefore not subjected to the ever-increasing price of gasoline. * The savings are immediate and for many years to come. * The use of solar energy indirectly reduces health costs. Environmentally friendly * Solar Energy is clean, renewable (unlike gas, oil and coal) and sustainable, helping to protect our environment. * It does not pollute our air by releasing carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide or mercury into the atmosphere like many traditional forms of electrical generation does. * Therefore Solar Energy does not contribute to global warming, acid rain or smog. * It actively contributes to the decrease of harmful green house gas emissions. * It's generated where it is needed. * By not using any fuel, Solar Energy does not contribute to the cost and problems of the recovery and transportation of fuel or the storage of radioactive waste. Independent/ semi-independent * Solar Energy can be utilized to offset utility-supplied energy consumption. It does not only reduce your electricity bill, but will also continue to supply your home/ business with electricity in the event of a power outage. * A Solar Energy system can operate entirely independently, not requiring a connection to a power or gas grid at all. Systems can therefore be installed in remote locations (like holiday log cabins), making it more practical and cost-effective than the supply of utility electricity to a new site. * The use of Solar Energy reduces our dependence on foreign and/or centralized sources of energy, influenced by natural disasters or international events and so contributes to a sustainable future. * Solar Energy supports local job and wealth creation, fuelling local economies. Low/ no maintenance * Solar Energy systems are virtually maintenance free and will last for decades. * Once installed, there are no recurring costs. * They operate silently, have no moving parts, do not release offensive smells and do not require you to add any fuel. * More solar panels can easily be added in the future when your family's needs grow. More about Solar energy advantages disadvantages Solar Energy Disadvantages * The initial cost is the main disadvantage of installing a solar energy system, largely because of the high cost of the semi-conducting materials used in building one. * The cost of solar energy is also high compared to non-renewable utility-supplied electricity. As energy shortages are becoming more common, solar energy is becoming more price-competitive. * Solar panels require quite a large area for installation to achieve a good level of efficiency. * The efficiency of the system also relies on the location of the sun, although this problem can be overcome with the installation of certain components. * The production of solar energy is influenced by the presence of clouds or pollution in the air. * Similarly, no solar energy will be produced during nighttime although a battery backup system and/or net metering will solve this problem. See www.dsireusa.org for details on how net metering allows you to save electricity and money. * As far as solar powered cars go - their slower speed might not appeal to everyone caught up in today's rat race.