advantages and disadvantages of budding
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Answers:Reproduction is asexual- desirable characteristics are passed over Undesirable characteristics are also passed over It is faster than reproduction sexually It takes a lot of energy to do
Answers:In a natural environment, such as soil, sexual partners might be difficult to come by. Overall, cells are in low numbers in many natural environments. Mobility is also very limited in a matrix such as soil. Budding allows a cell to still reproduce, but without the advantages of the variety introduced by sexual reproduction.
Answers:Organisms can reproduce when there is a good supply of food and not have to wait for another organism. But that might only be for types of fugi.
Answers:(1) Binary fission is the process by which prokaryotes divide into two identical daughter cells, which can eventually grow to the same size as the original parent cell. Such reproduction is characterized by exponential growth phases. A disadvantage is that there is little or no genetic variation, so habitat adaptation is not as rapid as would be expected with eukaryotic sexual reproduction. (2) Budding (also called burgeoning) is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. This is very common in plants and fungi, but may be found in some animals as well, such as the Hydra. Usually, the protrusion stays attached to the primary organism for a while, before becoming free. The new organism is naturally genetically identical to the primary one (a clone), so, as with binary fission, there is not as much genetic variation in offspring as occurs with sexual reproduction. (3) Spore formation. A spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and some protozoans. Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporophyte. Once conditions are favorable, the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to create a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations, but a better term is "biological life cycle", as there may be more than one phase and so it cannot be a direct alternation. Haploid spores produced by mitosis (known as mitospores) are used by many fungi for asexual reproduction. A chief difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores have very little stored food resources compared with seeds. Because spores contain so few nutrition stores, they are not as nurturing to a developing individual as a seed, egg, or placenta. (4) Fragmentation or Clonal Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into fragments. The splitting may or may not be intentional. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are a clone of the original organism. If the organism is split any further the process is repeated. Fragmentation is caused by mitosis. Meiosis is not involved in fragmentation. Fragmentation is seen in many organisms such as molds, some annelid worms, and starfish. Binary fission of single-celled organisms such bacteria, protozoa and many algae is a type of fragmentation. Molds, yeast, and mushrooms, all of which are part of the Fungi kingdom, produce tiny filaments called hyphae. These hyphae obtain food and nutrients from the body of other organisms to grow and fertilize. Then a piece of hyphae breaks off and grows into a new individual and the cycle continues. As with other types of asexual reproduction, fragmentation does not provide any genetic variation in offspring, and does not allow for any hybridization or heterosis. Thus, as with all forms of asexual reproduction, adaptation to new environemental conditions is not as rapid as with sexual reproduction. (5) Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction found in plants, and is also called vegetative propagation or vegetative multiplication. It is a process by which new plant "individuals" arise or are obtained without production of seeds or spores. It is both a natural process in many plant species (as well as non-plant organisms such as bacteria and fungi) and one used or encouraged by horticulturists to obtain quantities of economically valuable plants. As with other types of asexual reproduction, vegetative reproduction does not provide any genetic variation in offspring, and does not allow for any hybridization or heterosis. Thus, as with all forms of asexual reproduction, adaptation to new environemental conditions is not as rapid as with sexual reproduction.