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From Wikipedia

Thymine

Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T. The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. As the name suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine(T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thus stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.

Thymine combined with deoxyribose creates the nucleosidedeoxythymidine, which is synonymous with the term thymidine. Thymidine can be phosphorylated with one, two, or three phosphoric acid groups, creating, respectively, TMP, TDP, or TTP (thymidine mono-, di-, or triphosphate).

One of the common mutations of DNA involves two adjacent thymines or cytosine, which, in presence of ultraviolet light, may form thymine dimers, causing "kinks" in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function. Thymine could also be a target for actions of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cancer treatment. 5-FU can be a metabolic analog of thymine (in DNA synthesis) or uracil (in RNA synthesis). Substitution of this analog inhibits DNA synthesis in actively-dividing cells. Thymine bases are frequently oxidized to hydantoins over time after the death of an organism.


Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA. The shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA.

Structure

Adenine forms several tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent. However, in isolated conditions, i.e. in an inert gas matrix and in the gas phase, mainly the 9H-adenine tautomer is found.

Biosynthesis

Purine metabolism involves the formation of adenine and guanine. Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribosome through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as fused with the enzyme tetrahydrofolate.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the adenine pathway converts P-ribosyl-PP into adenine through a seven-step process.

Function

Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.

Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to the pokemon card deoxyribose. It forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions.

History

In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4. It is no longer considered a true vitamin or part of theVitamin B complex. However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively. Hermann Emil Fischer was one of the early scientists to study adenine.

It was named in 1885 by Albrecht Kossel, in reference to the pancreas (a specific gland - in Greek, "aden") from which Kossel's sample had been extracted.

Experiments performed in 1961 by Joan Oró have shown that a large quantity of adenine can be synthesized from the polymerization of ammonia with five hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules in aqueous solution; whether this has implications for the origin of life on Earth is under debate.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:I have to do a 3D dna model and one of the requirements was to show the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases and I just wondering how many there are between A & T and G & C. Thanks for the help!

Answers:A and T have double H bonds... C and G have triple H bonds... see this links below:

Question:--cytosine forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine is known as ? A semi-conservative replication. Ba double helix. Csecondary structure of a DNA molecule. Dcomplementary base pairing.

Answers:D) Complementary Base Pairing.-

Question:What chemical fuses thymine with adenine? what are the possible effects of this chemical.

Answers:Ligase. To help join bases together via hydrogen bonds.

Question:I know that A HAS to be bound to T, and C to G, but I also know that they can get mixed up, but I don't know what would happen after they get mixed up. A. be constricted along its entire length. B. bulge where cytosine bonds with thymine. C. constrict where adenine bonds with guanine. D. partially constrict and partially bulge along its length. E. be highly reactive. I know it would make a "loop" shape, so I'm thinking it could be D, but I don't know fo sho... :\

Answers:D. partially constrict and partially bulge along its length. A - T have 2 Hydrogen bonds G - C have 3 hydrogen bonds. The mismatch will result in the unstable condition of the DNA structure (making it partially constrict and partially bulge along its length).