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Network diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Artificial neural network diagram is an example of a "mesh" network diagram. ... which acts as a conduit to coordinate activity or transmit messages. ...

Active Directory

Active Directory (AD) is a directory service created by Microsoft.

Active Directory uses a number of standardized protocols to provide a variety of network services, including:

Features include:

  • Central location for network administration and security
  • Information security and single sign-on for user access to networked resources
  • The ability to scale up or down easily
  • Standardizing access to application data
  • Synchronization of directory updates across servers

Active Directory stores all information and settings for a deployment in a central database. Active Directory allows administrators to assign policies, deploy and update software. Active Directory networks can vary from a small installation with a few computers, users and printers to tens of thousands of users, many different network domains and large server farms spanning many geographical locations.


Active Directory was previewed in 1999, released first with Windows 2000 Server edition, and revised to extend functionality and improve administration in Windows Server 2003. Additional improvements were made in Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and was renamed Active Directory Domain Services.

Active Directory was called NTDS (NT Directory Service) in older Microsoft documents. This name can still be seen in some Active Directory binaries.



An Active Directory structure is a hierarchical arrangement of information about objects. The objects fall into two broad categories: resources (e.g., printers) and security principals (user or computer accounts and groups). Security principals are assigned unique security identifiers (SIDs).

Each object represents a single entity—whether a user, a computer, a printer, or a group—and its attributes. Certain objects can contain other objects. An object is uniquely identified by its name and has a set of attributes—the characteristics and information that the object represents— defined by a schema, which also determines the kinds of objects that can be stored in Active Directory.

Each attribute object can be used to define multiple schema objects. The schema object allows the schema to be extended or modified when necessary. However, because each schema object is integral to the definition of Active Directory objects, deactivating or changing these objects can fundamentally change and/or disrupt a deployment. Schema changes automatically propagate throughout the system. Once created, an object can only be deactivated—not deleted. Changing the schema usually requires planning.


A Site object in Active Directory represents a geographic location that hosts networks. Sites contain objects called subnets.

Forests, trees, and domains

The Active Directory framework that holds the objects can be viewed at a number of levels. The forest, tree, and domain are the logical divisions in an Active Directory network.

Within a deployment, objects are grouped into domains. The objects for a single domain are stored in a single database (which can be replicated). Domains are identified by their DNS name structure, the namespace.

A tree is a collection of one or more domains and domain trees in a contiguous namespace, linked in a transitive trust hierarchy.

At the top of the structure is the forest. A forest is a collection of trees that share a common global catalog, directory schema, logical structure, and directory configuration. The forest represents the security boundary within which users, computers, groups, and other objects are accessible.

Organizational units

The objects held within a domain can be grouped into Organizational Units (OUs). OUs can provide hierarchy to a domain, ease its administration, and can resemble the organization's structure in managerial or geographical terms. OUs can contain other OUs—domains are containers in this sense. Microsoft recommends using OUs rather than domains for structure and to simplify the implementation of policies and administration. The OU is the recommended level at which to apply group policies, which are Active Directory objects formally named Group Policy Objects (GPOs), although policies can also be applied to domains or sites (see below). The OU is the level at which administrative powers are commonly delegated, but delegation can be performed on individual objects or attributes as well.

Organizational Units are an abstraction for the administrator and do not function as containers; the underlying domain is the true container. It is not possible, for example, to create user accounts with an identical username (sAMAccountName) in separate OUs, such as "fred.staff-ou.domain" and "fred.student-ou.domain", where "staff-ou" and "student-ou" are the OUs. This is so because sAMAccountName, a user object attribute, must be unique within the domain.

As the number of users in a domain increases, conventions such as "first initial, middle initial, last name" will fail for common names like Smith, "Garcia" or Lee. Workarounds include adding a digit to the end of the username or using the unique employee/student id number.

Because duplicate usernames cannot exist within a domain, account name generation poses a significant challenge for large organizations that can not be easily subdivided into separate domains, such as students in a public school system or university who must be able to use any computer across the network.


From Yahoo Answers


Answers:A use case describes a sequence of actions that provide the actions that a user does. It is mainly for representing requirements of a new system or a software change. Each usecase has more than one scenario that say how the system should interact with the user or another system to achieve a specificgoal. The activity diagram is quite different. They usually represent the operational flow of a system. An Activity Diagram shows the overall flow of control of how the system runs. For instance, a usecase can be like 1 - a user enters his pinnumber 2 - the system grants access For instance a activity diagram can be like A diagram representing the flow of data and business logic between tiers databases and information. Can be used in many scenarios. http://www.tabletuml.com/Help/5%20Activity%20Diagram%20with%20Swimlanes.gif The example above represents some sort of activity diagram. Yes, an activity diagram can relate to a usecase diagram in a sence that it starts from an event. An activity diagram needs an event inorder to process it. So in a typical place, a user could be such event. This is a debatable manner but I hope you can understand the basics.


Answers:The text book publisher, Mcgraw Hill, provides good refrences.

Question:This is for 8th grade science... How would I draw a diagram showing both diffusion and active transport? What is diffusion in cells? Like i know that the cell membrane is permeable to oxygen molecules. And, that oxygen molecules diffuse from the arean of higher concentration. But what doesdiffusion have anything to do with active transport. How would I draw a diagram showing both diffusion and active transport? Thank you soo much to anyonw willing to give ANY ideas or examples or any help what so ever i am very thankful. I'm being quizzed on this stuff soon, and im not understanding this yet. <3

Answers:Active transport utilizes a membrane (going through the entire membrane) protein to transport molecules from a lower to higher concentration (against its concentration gradient). This requires energy, and that is what active refers to. Simple diffusion does not require a protein to transport molecules and requires no input of energy.

Question:For example I'm use to setting up networks in Windows using active directory and various other tools however I'm slowly trying to move towards linux. Right now I'm using ubuntu to play around and soon centOS. However I'm just curious if it is possible to set up ubuntu on all the client machines say 200 or so and have it communicate to a few linux servers running centOS or ubuntu server ect. If I do, could I do all of the same things as I could in windows via scripts if there is no main linux equivalent programs to do all that . ( i.e. manage users and computers remotely, some sort of active directory equivalent, lock out users, set policies, install software remotely, remote installs, ect.) Or is that not possible therefore probably why Windows is predominate in businesses? Just wondering. Where could I learn how to do all that in linux, any good tutorial sites? 10 points for best answer.

Answers:YES = Linux Network Configuration - http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialNetworking.html - The Linux Networking Overview HOWTO - http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Networking-Overview-HOWTO.html - Book Linux Networking Cookbook By Carla Schroder - http://books.google.com/books?id=P06O3lA0f5YC&printsec=frontcover&dq=linux+networking&source=bll&ots=rkWyWL_kPi&sig=S61Y5apSldvI-7e2yna0nWRH3rk&hl=en&ei=Y3EiTJfxI4nQngeQ68gm&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=12&ved=0CFMQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q&f=false

From Youtube

PMP - Drawing a Network Diagram Using Activity on Arrow Method :for handouts, visit to cpm-pmp.blogspot.com

Problem-Solving Techniques #10: Project Network Diagrams :Learn how to draw a simple Project Network Diagram to illustrate the sequence of activities in a project.