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An acid test is any qualitative chemical or metallurgical assay which uses acid; most commonly, and historically, the use of a strong acid to distinguish gold from base metals. Figuratively, acid test is any definitive test for some attribute, e.g. of a person's character, or of the performance of some product.
The traditional acid test for gold consists of placing a small drop of a strong acid, such as nitric acid, onto the metal's surface. Most metals fizz or bubble, while precious metals are unaffected. The acid test is thus decisive, immediate, cheap and simple.
The figurative meaning of the expression, where it is applied to tests of character, or definitive tests to other materials, became popular during and after the California Gold Rush[http://www.worldwidewords.org/backissues/wbi080517.txt], but was current before then, as shown by this quote from the Wisconsin paper The Columbia Reporter, November 1845:
- Twenty-four years of service demonstrates his ability to stand the acid test, as Gibsonâ€™s Soap Polish has done for over thirty years.
Other examples of the figurative use of the phrase are the web sites Acid1, Acid2 and Acid3, which are designed to test web browsers for compliance with current web standards. Another example is the quick ratio method, nicknamed "acid test", used by financial analysts to assess a business' liquidity.
The use of the term "acid test" for experiences with the psychedelic drugLSD was popularised by the Merry Pranksters, and derives from the drug's common name, "acid". Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the "outside world", and such experiences are considered to be a test of ones character.
Acid Test was a Canadianalternative rock band formed in Toronto in 1990. The band consisted of vocalist and bassist Lucy Di Santo, guitarist Steve Fall, keyboardist Atom Percy, drummer Jim Alty, and DJ Mike Harland. Fall played a prominent role in the Bruce McDonaldblack comedyHighway 61in 1992, and the band was created to perform two songs on the movie's soundtrack ("Mr. Skin" and "Dance").
After independently releasing an album on Eggplant Records, Sire Records (Warner Music Group) signed the band in 1993, releasing the album Drop that year. After two years of touring opening for a diverse collection of headlining acts such as Nine Inch Nails, Grace Jones, Snow, 54-40 and The Ocean Blue, Acid Test quietly went on a hiatus in 1994 due to band infighting and lack of proper record label support.
- Drop (1993)
Acid2 is a test page published and promoted by the Web Standards Project to expose web page rendering flaws in web browser s and other applications that render HTML. Named after the acid test for gold, it was developed in the spirit of Acid1, a relatively narrow test of compliance with
The name "acid" calls to mind vivid sensory imagesâ€”of tartness, for instance, if the acid in question is meant for human consumption, as with the citric acid in lemons. On the other hand, the thought of laboratory-and industrial-strength substances with scary-sounding names, such as sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid, carries with it other ideasâ€”of acids that are capable of destroying materials, including human flesh. The name "base," by contrast, is not widely known in its chemical sense, and even when the older term of "alkali" is used, the sense-impressions produced by the word tend not to be as vivid as those generated by the thought of "acid." In their industrial applications, bases too can be highly powerful. As with acids, they have many household uses, in substances such as baking soda or oven cleaners. From a taste standpoint, (as anyone who has ever brushed his or her teeth with baking soda knows), bases are bitter rather than sour. How do we know when something is an acid or a base? Acid-base indicators, such as litmus paper and other materials for testing pH, offer a means of judging these qualities in various substances. However, there are larger structural definitions of the two concepts, which evolved in three stages during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that provide a more solid theoretical underpinning to the understanding of acids and bases. Prior to the development of atomic and molecular theory in the nineteenth century, followed by the discovery of subatomic structures in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, chemists could not do much more than make measurements and observations. Their definitions of substances were purely phenomenologicalâ€”that is, the result of experimentation and the collection of data. From these observations, they could form general rules, but they lacked any means of "seeing" into the atomic and molecular structures of the chemical world. The phenomenological distinctions between acids and bases, gathered by scientists from ancient times onward, worked well enough for many centuries. The word "acid" comes from the Latin term acidus, or "sour," and from an early period, scientists understood that substances such as vinegar and lemon juice shared a common acidic quality. Eventually, the phenomenological definition of acids became relatively sophisticated, encompassing such details as the fact that acids produce characteristic colors in certain vegetable dyes, such as those used in making litmus paper. In addition, chemists realized that acids dissolve some metals, releasing hydrogen in the process. The word "alkali" comes from the Arabic al-qili, which refers to the ashes of the seawort plant. The latter, which typically grows in marshy areas, was often burned to produce soda ash, used in making soap. In contrast to acids, basesâ€”caffeine, for exampleâ€”have a bitter taste, and many of them feel slippery to the touch. They also produce characteristic colors in the vegetable dyes of litmus paper, and can be used to promote certain chemical reactions. Note that today chemists use the word "base" instead of "alkali," the reason being that the latter term has a narrower meaning: all alkalies are bases, but not all bases are alkalies. Originally, "alkali" referred only to the ashes of burned plants, such as seawort, that contained either sodium or potassium, and from which the oxides of sodium and potassium could be obtained. Eventually, alkali came to mean the soluble hydroxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals. This includes sodium hydroxide, the active ingredient in drain and oven cleaners; magnesium hydroxide, used for instance in milk of magnesia; potassium hydroxide, found in soaps and other substances; and other compounds. Broad as this range of substances is, it fails to encompass the wide array of materials known today as basesâ€”compounds which react with acids to form salts and water. The reaction to form salts and water is, in fact, one of the ways that acids and bases can be defined. In an aqueous solution, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react to form sodium chlorideâ€”which, though it is suspended in an aqueous solution, is still common table saltâ€”along with water. The equation for this reaction is HCl(aq ) + NaOH(aq ) â†’H2O + NaCl(aq ). In other words, the sodium (Na) ion in sodium hydroxide switches places with the hydrogen ion in hydrochloric acid, resulting in the creation of NaCl (salt) along with water. But why does this happen? Useful as this definition regarding the formation of salts and water is, it is still not structuralâ€”in other words, it does not delve into the molecular structure and behavior of acids and bases. Credit for the first truly structural definition of the difference goes to the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927). It was Arrhenius who, in his doctoral dissertation in 1884, introduced the concept of an ion, an atom possessing an electric charge. His understanding was particularly impressive in light of the fact that it was 13 more years before the discovery of the electron, the subatomic particle responsible for the creation of ions. Atoms have a neutral charge, but when an electron or electrons depart, the atom becomes a positive ion or cation. Similarly, when an electron or electrons join a previously uncharged atom, the result is a negative ion or anion. Not only did the concept of ions greatly influence the future of chemistry, but it also provided Arrhenius with the key necessary to formulate his distinction between acids and bases. Arrhenius observed that molecules of certain compounds break into charged particles when placed in liquid. This led him to the Arrhenius acid-base theory, which defines an acid as any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water, and a base as any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OHâˆ’) when dissolved in water. This was a good start, but two aspects of Arrhenius's theory suggested the need for a definition that encompassed more substances. First of all, his theory was limited to reactions in aqueous solutions. Though many acid-base reactions do occur when water is the solvent, this is not always the case. Second, the Arrhenius definition effectively limited acids and bases only to those ionic compounds, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide, which produced either hydrogen or hydroxide ions. However, ammonia, or NH3, acts like a base in aqueous solutions, even though it does not produce the hydroxide ion. The same is true of other substances, which behave like acids or bases without conforming to the Arrhenius definition. These shortcomings pointed to the need for a more comprehensive theory, which arrived with the formulation of the BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry definition by English chemist Thomas Lowry (1874-1936) and Danish chemist J. N. BrÃ¸nsted (1879-1947). Nonetheless, Arrhenius's theory represented an important first step, and in 1903, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the dissociation of molecules into ions. The BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry acid-base theory defines an acid as a proton (H+) donor, and a base as a proton acceptor, in a chemical reaction. Protons are represented by the symbol H+, and in representing acids and bases, the symbols HA and Aâˆ’, respectively, are used. These symbols indicate that an acid has a proton it is ready to give away, while a base, with its negative charge, is ready to receive the positively charged proton. Though it is used here to represent a proton, it should be pointed out that H+ is also the hydrogen ionâ€”a hydrogen atom that has lost its sole electron and thus acquired a positive charge. It is thus really nothing more than a lone proton, but this is the one and only case in which an atom and a proton are exactly the same thing. In an acid-base reaction, a molecule of acid is "donating" a proton, in the form of a hydrogen ion. This should not be confused with a far more complex process, nuclear fusion, in which an atom gives up a proton to another atom. The most fundamental type of acid-base reaction in BrÃ¸nsted-Lowry theory can be symbolized thus HA(aq ) + H2O(l ) â†’H3O+(aq )
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Answers:NH4 is the conjugate acid bc its acidic now that its taken the H* (or has been protonized) Oh s obviously the conjugate base
Answers:The mucic acid test is named for the product of the reaction. Galactose, lactose and other carbohydrates can be oxidized by concentrated nitric acid to give mucic acid which will form crystals if the solution is allowed to stand undisturbed overnight. Mucic acid is almost insoluble in cold water. An aldehyde group is oxidized by the nitric acid to a carboxylic group. The reaction is: HC=O-(CHOH)4-COOH (aq) + 2 HNO3 (aq) --> HOC=O-(CHOH)4-COOH (s) + H2O (l) + 2 NO2 (g) The initial structure of the galactose can be seen at the site below:
Answers:Water - add anhydrous cobalt chloride. Ethanoic acid - add sodium carbonate. The alcohol - add pure ethanoic acid, and warm with a little conc H2SO4 to make an ester. Now you can work out the equations.
Answers:The above reaction is impossible Oxidation of Ethanol: - most common in industry CH3CH2OH + K2CrO4 ---> CH3COOH + K2CrO2 + H2O