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In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.
Different languages may have different lexical categories, or they might associate different properties to the same one. For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have classifiers while European languages do not grammaticalize these units of measurement (a pair of pants, a grain of rice); many languages don't have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see stative verbs) or adjectives and nouns, etc. Some argue that the formal distinctions between parts of speech must be made within the framework of a specific language or language family, and should not be carried over to other languages or language families.
The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics. In the Nirukta, written in the 5th or 6th century BC, theSanskrit grammarianYÄ�ska defined four main categories of words:
- nÄ�ma â€“ nouns or substantives
- Ä�khyÄ�ta â€“ verbs
- upasarga â€“ pre-verbs or prefixes
- nipÄ�ta â€“ particles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions)
These four were grouped into two large classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and uninflected (pre-verbs and particles).
- peyar (noun),
- vinai (verb),
- idai (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns) and
- uri (word that further qualifies a noun or verb)
A century or two later, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Cratylus dialog that "... sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs [rhÄ“ma] and nouns [Ã³noma]". Another class, "conjunctions" (covering conjunctions, pronouns, and the article), was later added by Aristotle.
By the end of the 2nd century BC, the classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar(Î¤ÎÏ‡Î½Î· Î“Ï�Î±Î¼Î¼Î±Ï„Î¹ÎºÎ®) :
- Noun: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity
- Verb: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone
- Participle: a part of speech sharing the features of the verb and the noun
- Interjection: a part of speech expressing emotion alone
- Pronoun: a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for person
- Preposition: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax
- Adverb: a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb
- Conjunction: a part of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation
Traditional English grammar is patterned after the European tradition above, and is still taught in schools and used in dictionaries. It names eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and From Yahoo Answers
Answers:Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much". A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready. An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. Hope this helps.
Answers:The eight parts of speech are as follows ... Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Just "Google" search these terms and you're surely find more detailed definitions plus examples of use.
Answers:The link below would explain it so much better than I ever could. Hope I helped. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/parts-of-speech_2.htm
Answers:Hey - how about searching the internet "parts of speech".... http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htm Are you in 3rd grade or just lazy???