5 Branches of Applied Science
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science [Lat. scientia =knowledge]. For many the term science refers to the organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both animate and inanimate, but a proper definition would also have to include the attitudes and methods through which this body of knowledge is formed; thus, a science is both a particular kind of activity and also the results of that activity. The Scientific Method The scientific method has evolved over many centuries and has now come to be described in terms of a well-recognized and well-defined series of steps. First, information, or data, is gathered by careful observation of the phenomenon being studied. On the basis of that information a preliminary generalization, or hypothesis, is formed, usually by inductive reasoning, and this in turn leads by deductive logic to a number of implications that may be tested by further observations and experiments (see induction ; deduction ). If the conclusions drawn from the original hypothesis successfully meet all these tests, the hypothesis becomes accepted as a scientific theory or law; if additional facts are in disagreement with the hypothesis, it may be modified or discarded in favor of a new hypothesis, which is then subjected to further tests. Even an accepted theory may eventually be overthrown if enough contradictory evidence is found, as in the case of Newtonian mechanics, which was shown after more than two centuries of acceptance to be an approximation valid only for speeds much less than that of light. Role of Measurement and Experiment All of the activities of the scientific method are characterized by a scientific attitude, which stresses rational impartiality. Measurement plays an important role, and when possible the scientist attempts to test his theories by carefully designed and controlled experiments that will yield quantitative rather than qualitative results. Theory and experiment work together in science, with experiments leading to new theories that in turn suggest further experiments. Although these methods and attitudes are generally shared by scientists, they do not provide a guaranteed means of scientific discovery; other factors, such as intuition, experience, good judgment, and sometimes luck, also contribute to new developments in science. Branches of Specialization Science may be roughly divided into the physical sciences, the earth sciences, and the life sciences. Mathematics , while not a science, is closely allied to the sciences because of their extensive use of it. Indeed, it is frequently referred to as the language of science, the most important and objective means for communicating the results of science. The physical sciences include physics , chemistry , and astronomy ; the earth sciences (sometimes considered a part of the physical sciences) include geology , paleontology , oceanography , and meteorology ; and the life sciences include all the branches of biology such as botany , zoology , genetics , and medicine . Each of these subjects is itself divided into different branchesâ€”e.g., mathematics into arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and analysis; physics into mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, acoustics, electricity and magnetism, and atomic and nuclear physics. In addition to these separate branches, there are numerous fields that draw on more than one branch of science, e.g., astrophysics, biophysics, biochemistry, geochemistry, and geophysics. All of these areas of study might be called pure sciences, in contrast to the applied, or engineering, sciences, i.e., technology, which is concerned with the practical application of the results of scientific activity. Such fields include mechanical, civil, aeronautical, electrical, architectural, chemical, and other kinds of engineering ; agronomy, horticulture, and animal husbandry; and many aspects of medicine. Finally, there are distinct disciplines for the study of the history and philosophy of science. The Beginnings of Science Science as it is known today is of relatively modern origin, but the traditions out of which it has emerged reach back beyond recorded history. The roots of science lie in the technology of early toolmaking and other crafts, while scientific theory was once a part of philosophy and religion. This relationship, with technology encouraging science rather than the other way around, remained the norm until recent times. Thus, the history of science is essentially intertwined with that of technology. Practical Applications in the Ancient Middle East The early civilizations of the Tigris-Euphrates valley and the Nile valley made advances in both technology and theory, but separate groups within each culture were responsible for the progress. Practical advances in metallurgy, agriculture, transportation, and navigation were made by the artisan class, such as the wheelwrights and shipbuilders. The priests and scribes were responsible for record keeping, land division, and calendar determination, and they developed written language and early mathematics for this purpose. The Babylonians devised methods for solving algebraic equations, and they compiled extensive astronomical records from which the periods of the planets' revolution and the eclipse cycle could be calculated; they used a year of 12 months and a week of 7 days, and also originated the division of the day into hours, minutes, and seconds. In Egypt there were also developments in mathematics and astronomy and the beginnings of the science of medicine. Wheeled vehicles and bronze metallurgy, both known to the Sumerians in Babylonia as early as 3000 BC, were imported to Egypt c.1750 BC Between 1400 BC and 1100 BC iron smelting was discovered in Armenia and spread from there, and alphabets were developed in Phoenicia. Early Greek Contributions to Science The early Greek, or Hellenic, culture marked a different approach to science. The Ionian natural philosophers removed the gods from the personal roles they had played in the cosmologies of Babylonia and Egypt and sought to order the world according to philosophical principles. Thales of Miletus (6th cent. BC) was one of the earliest of these and contributed to astronomy, geometry, and cosmology. He was followed by Anaximander, who extended Thales' ideas and proposed that the universe is composed of four basic elements, i.e., earth, air, fire, and water; this theory was also taught by Empedocles (5th cent. BC) in Sicily. The philosophers Leucippus and Democritus (both 5th cent. BC) held that everything is composed of tiny, indivisible atoms. In the school founded at Croton, S Italy, by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras of Samos (6th cent. BC) the principal concept was that of number. The Pythagoreans tried to explain the workings of the universe in terms of whole numbers and their ratios; in addition to contributions to mathematics and philosophy, they also made notable studies in the area of biology and anatomy, e.g., by Alcmaeon of Croton (fl. c.500 BC). The most important developments in medicine were made by Hippocrates of Cos (4th cent. BC), known as the Father of Medicine, who formulated the science of diagnosis based on accurate descriptions of the symptoms of various diseases. The greatest figures of the earlier Greek period were the philosophers Plato (427-347 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC), each of whom exerted an influence that has extended down to modern times. Influence of the Alexandrian Schools The later Greek, or Hellenistic, culture was centered not in Greece itself but in Greek cities elsewhere, particularly Alexandria, Egypt, which was founded in 332 BC by Alexander the Great. The so-called first Alexandrian school included Euclid (fl. c.300 BC), who organized the axiomatic system of geometry that has served as the model for many other scientific presentations since then; Eratosthenes (3d cent. BC), who made a remarkably accurate estimate of the size of the earth; and Aristarchus (3d cent. BC), who showed that the sun is larger than the earth and suggested a heliocentric model for the solar system. Archimedes (287-212 BC) worked at Syracuse, Sicily, and made contributions to mathematics and mechanics that were surprisingly mo
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Answers:Biotechnology Classes Below: Red Biotech: is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation. White/Grey Biotech: applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Green Biotech: applied to agricultural processes. An example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. Blue Biotech: used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. Biotechnology Products Below: Antibiotics Bt Corn Transgenic plants and Animals Pesticides Applied Biology below: Agronomy Agrometeorology Agri-environmental sciences Applied genomics Applied metabolomics Applied proteomics Biological control Crop ecology Entomology Molecular biology Mycology Nematology Plant pathology Plant breeding & genetics Plant physiology Post harvest biology Soil science Statistics Virology Weed biology You are better off if you go to the Website called "The Association of Applied Biology " below... http://www.aab.org.uk/contentok.php?id=301 The Association's overall aim is: "To promote the study and advancement of all branches of Biology and in particular (but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing), to foster the practice, growth and development of applied biology, including the application of biological sciences for the production and preservation of food, fibre and other materials and for the maintenance and improvement of earth's physical environment". The person below me named Anamika also has alot of info for you too... Good Luck to You in the Future........
Answers:Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Oceanography, and Ecology. Extras: Vulcanology, Seismology,Geochemistry, Physical Geography and Cartography
Answers:Hmmm...and your question is? The branches are: Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications Anatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodies Biochemistry - the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology. Bioinformatics - also classified as a branch of information technology (IT) it is the study, collection, and storage of genomic data Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology - the study of biological processes through mathematics, with an emphasis on modeling. Biomechanics - often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through artificial limbs, etc. Biophysics - the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology - a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification Botany - the study of plants Cell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell. Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife Cryobiology - the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings. Developmental Biology - the study of the processes through which an organism develops, from zygote to full structure. Ecology - the study of the ecosystem as a complete unit, with an emphasis on how species and groups of species interact with other living beings and non-living elements. Entomology - the study of insects Environmental Biology - the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity Epidemiology - a major component of public health research, it is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations Ethology - the study of animal behavior. Evolution or Evolutionary Biology - the study of the origin and decent of species over time Genetics - the study of genes and heredity. Herpetology - the study of reptiles (and amphibians?) Histology - The study of cells and tissue, a microscopic branch of anatomy. Ichthyology - the study of fish Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit. Mammology - the study of mammals Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings. Medicine - the study of the human body in health and disease, with allopathic medicine focusing on alleviating or curing the body from states of disease Microbiology - the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things Molecular Biology - the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry Mycology - the study of fungi Neurobiology - the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology, even pathology Oceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean. See Marine Biology Ornithology - the study of birds Paleontology - the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology - the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease Parisitology - the study of parasites and parasitism Pharmacology - the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines. Physiology - the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology - the study of plant diseases Pre-medicine - a college major that covers the general aspects of biology as well as specific classes relevant to the study of medicine Virology - the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents, usually considered part of microbiology or pathology Zoology - the study of animals and animal life, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (See also Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology, Mammology, Ornithology Hope that answered your question...whatever it was.