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5 Branches of Applied Science





The disciplines that make use of the scientific skills and methodology to impart or help in the learning practice are better known as the branches of applied science.
The most common of the branches that are studied under applied science are Geology, Astronomy, Oceanography, Meteorology and Ecology
There are other applied streams as well but the above mentioned streams have better end use scope than the rest.
 
Geology: this particular stream covers the sub-streams like Earth’s structure, its system of developments, development of rocks, lands, seas, soil, and mountains. 
Earths structure in all physical conditions such as heat, and moisture etc. 
Earths progress in life, the different vegetation and animal tribes. 
The scope of Geology is immense and there is plenty of job opportunities and is one of the few streams where we need skilled people and has less competition as well. 
Job opportunities are available in Statistical Institutes, Oil and Natural gas exploration based Companies, Geological Survey, various excavation companies engaged in drilling, piling and mining. 
In addition to these the option of teaching this particular subject is always open besides working in Research Institutions. 
Job opportunities also available in outside the country as well and especially Countries in Middle East and Central Asia where newly found mineral reserves are excavated and are in need of skilled work force.
The Geology course could be studied right after XII from Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics stream. 
Admission to University courses are completely on merit base. Both graduate and post-graduate courses are available in many Universities. Specialized courses are offered from IIT Kharagpur. One can also opt M Tech in geology or geo-physics.

Astronomy: it is considered as one of the oldest science and also the newest. 
The exciting discoveries that are made every day with most of the sophisticated tools and instruments and techniques available and yet we have dedicated amateurs still making significant contributions.
 It is also considered as the science dealing in heavenly bodies. 
This stream of science deals with the real and apparent motions of celestial bodies.
This science classifies these celestial bodies as per their nature, constitution and state of physical. 
The laws which govern their motions in definite orbits, and the kind of effects these bodies have on rest of the neighbouring elements. 
Scope in Astronomy:  the scope in Astronomy is available in several research institutes and Governmental Organisation deploys research fellows in different academic under various programmes. 
Job opportunities in Universities are also available faculties dealing in this subject.
There are opportunities in private organisations especially in astronomical sophistication and instrumentation and in computer programming as well as data handling related to astral-science.
Courses are available in Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics offers PhD programme for which the student must have a background in MSc Physics or applied Astronomy / Mathematics, or Computer Science. Selection is through written test and interview and also candidates need to clear UGC-NET or CSIR or GATE before or within one year of joining the PhD programme.

Oceanography: it is the science of the oceans and their interactions with the atmosphere above along with the underlying sea floors, sediments and ocean crust.
It also deals with the interactions between these layers biological and chemical components, their physical properties and motion. It also covers the geology of the ocean crust, their creation, past history and development, their present state of conditions and the future crust or plate movements.
This subject is founded on the basic scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and mathematics.
Oceanography relies heavily upon a range of technologies like computing, electronics, optics and acoustics which together evolve the design and constructions of winches and wires and also enable the scientists to make observations and sample the remote ocean depths.
Oceanography is not exactly the geography of ocean and is not as glamorous as other streams but it is quite challenging, useful science, application based providing personal satisfaction to know the unknowns.
Oceanography is the science of the future as time is not far away when humanoids would have to go back to ocean depths in search of sustainable energy and food.
Scope of oceanography: 
The study of oceanography is divided into four main disciplines and they are as follows:
(a)    Geological oceanography is covers the study of the sea floor structure. The changes in sea floor and the basically the formation of sea floor features including the deposition of sediments.
(b)    Chemical oceanography covers the chemical composition and properties of seawater; methods of extracting certain chemicals from seawater along with effects of pollutants on sea water.
(c)    Physical oceanography covers the detailing of the waves, the tides, and the currents; the balance between the ocean and atmosphere and its influences on weather and climate and also the transmission of light and sound in the oceans.
(d)    Biological oceanography covers the study of different class of life forms in ocean and their inter-relationship; life forms adaptations to the marine environment, and lastly developing variety methods to harvest seafood.
To study oceanography one should have a sound knowledge of chemistry, biology, geology and physics along with very good knowledge of mathematics.
Job prospect is growing as all kinds of off-shore activities need people with sound knowledge of ocean and is it’s the science of the future the prospect will grow in time.
Lots of Universities in India are offering MSc level courses in Marine science and marine zoology and some provide MSc courses in Marine geology and Ocean life science.

Meteorology: it can also be termed as science of weather. It is considered as the inter-discipline stream which studies the science of atmosphere.
The Greeks were the first ones who contemplated and discussed the actual cause of weather and they even gave name ‘meteorology’ or the study of meteors. For the Greeks anything that appeared between Earth and the Moon space. Greeks also included other factors apart from meteors and they are clouds, rain, snow, fog, hail, thunder and rainbows.
The atmosphere would always provide challenge for us and with research and technology advancement, our ability to understand the atmosphere improves as well. The study of meteorology is intended to aid own personal understanding and appreciation of our Earth’s dynamic atmosphere.
Scope of meteorology: the entire gamut of social, agriculture, commerce, industrialization and modes of transportations depend either directly or indirectly to the impending climate and weather of a particular area. 
The atmosphere affects and sustains human life, animal migration and sustenance, variety of micro-organisms, insects and their growth and life cycle everything that relates to the biotic and abiotic factors present within Earth’s system and has the greatest scope on every human enterprise in Modern life.
Several Universities and especially Indian Institute of Meteorology offer specialised courses under meteorology like applied meteorology, climatology, agriculture meteorology and synoptic meteorology.


Ecology: it is the study of organisms in relation to the surroundings in which the live in. 
These surroundings are basically termed as environment of the organism and are made up of many different components, including the rest of organisms and their combined effect on the climate and soil.
Ecologist or those who study ecology are always trying to understand how an organism fits into its environment. 
The environment is important and is supreme to an organism for its ability to exist.
In ecology all relationship are reciprocal and every factors biotic or abiotic in nature interact with each other to maintain the balance that was for millions of years.
Without carbon-di-oxide that we the animals breathe out, the plants, bacterias and algae’s would not get it from atmosphere and thus the bio-chemical process that these organisms carry out won’t be complete. 
The air plays a big role in the transactions between the plant kingdom and animals and we in turn depend completely on these groups of organism for our daily need of oxygen and food.
 Scope of ecology:  The scope of ecology invades into almost everything a human does in his lifetime. 
We could see a new initiative from the evidence of ecology study and the advent of bionomics in society. 
Now the human health is linked to the kind of environment he lives in and is thus has become do or die issue for the survival of human kind. 
A combined effort is on the way from the society in general and also as laws and by-laws from the government to maintain the status quo and improve on the common issue of sustaining our ecology.
There are courses from almost all the University in India either in combination with Chemistry and Zoology or Botany and are also available as specialisation in MSc courses.