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Urine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urine is produced by a process of filtration, reabsorption, and tubular secretion. ... acidic urine can contribute to the formation of stones of uric acid in ... (g cm 3) , and any deviations may be associated with urinary disorders. ...

Formative evaluation


Formative evaluation is a type of evaluation which has the purpose of improving programs. It goes under other names such as developmental evaluation and implementation evaluation. It can be contrasted with other types of evaluation which have other purposes, in particular process evaluation and outcome evaluation. An example of this is its use in instructional design to assess ongoing projects during their construction to implement improvements. Formative evaluation can use any of the techniques which are used in other types of evaluation: surveys, interviews, data collection and experiments (where these are used to examine the outcomes of pilot projects).

Formative evaluation developed relatively late in the course of evaluation's emergence as a discipline as a result of growing frustration with an exclusive emphasis on outcome evaluation as the only purpose for evaluation activity. Outcome evaluation looks at the intended or unintended positive or negative consequences of a program, policy or organization. While outcome evaluation is useful where it can be done, it is not always the best type of evaluation to undertake. For instance, in many cases it is difficult or even impossible to undertake an outcome evaluation because of either feasibility or cost. In other cases, even where outcome evaluation is feasible and affordable, it may be a number of years before the results of an outcome evaluation become available. As a consequence, attention has turned to using evaluation techniques to maximize the chances that a program will be successful instead of waiting till the final results of a program are available to assess its usefulness. Formative evaluation therefore complements outcome evaluation rather than being an alternative to it.

Formative evaluation is done with a small group of people to "test run" various aspects of instructional materials. For example, you might ask a friend to look over your web pages to see if they are graphically pleasing, if there are errors you've missed, if it has navigational problems. It's like having someone look over your shoulder during the development phase to help you catch things that you miss, but a fresh set of eyes might not. At times, you might need to have this help from a target audience. For example, if you're designing learning materials for third graders, you should have a third grader as part of your Formative Evaluation.

The terms formative and summative evaluation were coined by Michael Scriven (1967) .

Formative Evaluation has also recently become the recommended method of evaluation in U.S. education. In this context, an educator would analyze the performance of a student during the teaching/intervention process and compare this data to the baseline data. There are four visual criteria that can be applied

  1. Change in mean,
  2. Change in level or discontinuity of performance,
  3. Change in trend or rate of change,
  4. Latency of change

Another method of monitoring progress in formative evaluation is use of the number-point rule. In this method, if a certain pre-specified number of data points collected during the intervention are above the goal, then the educators need to consider raising the goal or discontinuing the intervention. If data points vary highly, educators can discuss how to motivate a student to achieve more consistently.


At the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Vienna Twitter was used for formative course evaluation.

Union process

The Union process is an above ground shale oil extraction technology for production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil. The process uses a vertical retort where heating causes decomposition of oil shale into shale oil, oil shale gas and spent residue. The particularity of this process is that oil shale in the retort moved countercurrent from the bottom upward to the top by a mechanism known as a rock pump. The process technology was invented by the American oil company Unocal Corporation in late 1940s and was developed through several decades. The largest oil shale retort ever built was the Union B type retort.


Union Oil Company of California (Unocal) started its oil shale activities in 1920s. In 1921, it acquired an oil shale tract in the Parachute Creek area of Colorado, southern Piceance Basin. The development of the Union process began in the late 1940s, when the Union A retort was designed. This technology was tested between 1954 and 1958 at the company-owned tract in the Parachute Creek. During these tests, up to 1,200 tonne per day of oil shale was processed, resulting of 800|oilbbl/d shale oil, which was refined at a Colorado refinery. More than 13000|oilbbl of gasoline and fuels were produced. This production was finally shut down in 1961 due to cost.

In 1974, the Union B process, evolved from the Union A process, was developed. In 1976, Union announced its plans to build a Union B demonstration plant. Construction started in 1981 at Long Ridge in San Miguel County, Colorado, and the plant was started its operations in 1986. It was closed in 1991 after production of 5|Moilbbl shale oil.


The Union process can be operated in two different combustion modes, which are direct and indirect. The Union A (direct) process is similar to the gas combustion retort technology, classified as an internal combustion method, while the Union B (indirect) process is classified as an externally generated hot gas method.

The Union retort is a vertical shaft retort. The main difference compared with typical vertical shaft retorts is that crushed s oil shale in size of 3.2|to|50.8|mm|in is fed through the bottom of the retort and it moves upwards through the retort by the solids pump (known as a "rock pump"). Hot gases, generated by internal combustion or circulated through the top of the retort, decompose the oil shale while descending. The pyrolysis occurs at the temperature of 510|°C|°F|1 to 540|°C|°F|1. Shale oil vapors and gases are carried out from the retort at the bottom. Part of the gases is recirculated for pyrolysis and fueling combustion, while other part could be used as product gas. The spent shale is removed from the top of the retort. After cooling in a water it is conveyed to the waste disposal.


The Union retort design has several advantages. The reducing atmosphere in the retort allows the removal of sulfur and nitrogen compounds through the formation of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Oil vapors are cooled by the raw oil, thus minimizing polymer formation among the hydrocarbon fractions.

Tagged Image File Format

Tagged Image File Format (abbreviated TIFF) is a file format for storing images, popular among Apple Macintosh owners, graphic artists, the publishing industry, and both amateur and professional photographers in general. As of 2009, it is under the control of Adobe Systems. Originally created by the company Aldus for use with what was then called "desktop publishing", the TIFF format is widely supported by image-manipulation applications, by publishing and page layout applications, by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications. Adobe Systems, which acquired Aldus, now holds the copyright to the TIFF specification. TIFF has not had a major update since 1992, though several Aldus/Adobe technical notes have been published with minor extensions to the format, and several specifications, including TIFF/EP (ISO 12234-2), TIFF/IT (ISO 12639), TIFF-F (RFC 2306) and TIFF-FX (RFC 3949) have been based on the TIFF 6.0 specification.


The phrases "Tagged Image File Format" and "Tag Image File Format" were used as the subtitle to some early versions of the TIFF specification; the 1992 specification, TIFF 6.0, does not use either subtitle phrase, but is simply "TIFF".

TIFF was originally created as an attempt to get desktop scanner vendors of the mid-1980s to agree on a common scanned image file format, rather than have each company promote its own proprietary format. In the beginning, TIFF was only a binary image format (only two possible values for each pixel), since that was all that desktop scanners could handle. As scanners became more powerful, and as desktop computer disk space became more plentiful, TIFF grew to accommodate grayscale images, then color images. Today, TIFF is a popular format for high color-depth images, along with JPEG and PNG.

The first version of the TIFF specification was published by Aldus Corporation in the autumn of 1986 after two major earlier draft releases. It can be labeled as Revision 3.0. It was published after a series of meetings with various scanner manufacturers and software developers. In April 1987 Revision 4.0 was released and it contained mostly minor enhancements. In October 1988 Revision 5.0 was released and it added support for palette color images and LZW compression.

Flexible options

TIFF is a flexible, adaptable file format for handling images and data within a single file, by including the header tags (size, definition, image-data arrangement, applied image compression) defining the image's geometry. For example, a TIFF file can be a container holding compressed (lossy) JPEG and (lossless) PackBits compressed images. A TIFF file also can include a vector-based clipping path (outlines, croppings, image frames). The ability to store image data in a lossless format makes a TIFF file a useful image archive, because, unlike standard JPEG files, a TIFF file using lossless compression (or none) may be edited and re-saved without losing image quality. This is not the case when using the TIFF as a container holding compressed JPEG. Other TIFF options are layers and pages.

TIFF offers the option of using LZW compression, a lossless data-compression technique for reducing a file's size. Until 2004, use of this option was limited because the LZW technique was under several patents. However, these patents have expired.

When TIFF was introduced, its extensibility provoked compatibility problems. Every TIFF reader was required to read Baseline TIFF, but Baseline TIFF did not include layers, or compression with JPEG or LZW. Baseline TIFF does include PackBits compression, a form of run-length encoding. Many TIFF readers supported tags additional to those in Baseline TIFF, but not every reader supported every extension. As a consequence, TIFF became the lowest common denominator image format, with most TIFF images containing uncompressed 32-bit CMYK or 24-bit RGB images.

Every TIFF begins with a 2-byte indicator of byte order: "II" for little-endian and "MM" for big-endian byte ordering. The next 2 bytes represent the number 42, selected because this is the binary pattern 101010 and "for its deep philosophical significance" (a joke). The 42-reading depends upon the byte order indicated by the 2-byte indicator. All words, double words, etc., in the TIFF file are assumed to be in the indicated byte order. The TIFF 6.0 specification says that compliant TIFF readers must support both byte orders (II and MM); writers may use either. The flexibility in encoding gave rise to the joke that TIFF stands for Thousands of Incompatible File Formats.


The TIFF file formats use 32-bit offsets, which limits file size to 4 GiB (4,294,967,296 bytes). BigTIFF is a TIFF variant file format which uses 64-bit offsets and supports much larger files. The BigTIFF file format specification was implemented in 2007 in development releases of LibTIFF version 4.0, which is still in beta development. Support for BigTIFF file formats by applications is limited.

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From Yahoo Answers

Question:I know it involves oxidation of NH3 to form NO first, then NO2 and N2O4, but after that how do i know which one or how much of each of those oxides reacts to form Nitric Acid. Let me know if you need more details about the reactions. Thanks.

Answers:Technical applications Although NO has relatively few industrial uses, it is produced on a massive scale as an intermediate in the Ostwald process for the synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia. In 2005, the US alone produced 6M metric tonnes of nitric acid. As a raw material it is used in the semiconductor industry for various processes. In one of its applications it is used along with nitrous oxide to form oxynitride gates in CMOS devices. Miscellaneous applications Nitric oxide can be used for detecting surface radicals on polymers. Quenching of surface radicals with nitric oxide results in incorporation of nitrogen, which can be quantified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Question:Only serious and authentic answers please. I am a 60 year old male and diabetic. In a recent urine examination the following levels were reported: Albumin 4.4 g/dl Globulin 2.3 g/dl A/G Ratio 1.9 I was told that Globulin level is slightly lower (range being 2.6 - 3.9 g/dl) and therefore the A/G Ratio becomes a little higher. How will it affect my liver? Similarly, in the Hemogram (blood test) my RDW is 15.5% which is said to be a little higher (range: 11.6 - 14.0%). What does it indicate? Please remember I am diabetic and 60 years old male. Correction: The test was done on blood sample and NOT on urine as mentioned in the question. Regret the error.

Answers:you have good parameters.still for other people who has bad results it wonn't affect their liver but it would be mostly because of liver problems.and about RDW,,it may get high sometimes for many causes{it indicates active formation of new blood cells},,maybe you have passed a relative hard time and it got better at the time of test,,donnate blood or had bled.in egypt it is mostly due to malnutrition then the patient remember to correct his diet sooo his Body would produce more young blood cells using the good diet ,,soo giving high RDW.RDW=wide difference in red blood cells size.

Question:There are 4 general types of volcanoes. Which is formed in the following manner? Flow, after flow, pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents, building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat, dome shape, with a profile like a warriors shield. Which kind of volcano is this? A) Cinder cone volcano B) Composite volcano C) Shield volcano D) Lava dome volcano Which of the following is NOT one of the three main components of soil? A) rocks B) sand C) clay D) silt Hardness, luster, cleavage, streak color, and mineral color are all physical properties of minerals. We would use these properties to: A) identify rocks B) identify minerals C) determine the quality of gemstones D) determine the quality of rocks Which of the following are processes related to the formation of sedimentary rocks? A) Heat & pressure - forces exerted on rock as it is moved deep below the surface at a subduction zone causing melting. B) Weathering - the breakdown of parent rock material into smaller pieces eventually forming soil. C) Erosion - the removal of the top layer of soil from an area D) Cooling of magma or lava and crystallization - the process that takes place as magma/lava cools and hardens into rock E) Deposition - the depositing of small rocks, sand, silt, and clay as water or wind slows to a speed that can no longer support the weight of the rock or particle. Which of the following processes are related to the formation of igneous rocks? A) Weathering- the breakdown of parent rock material into smaller pieces eventually forming soil. B) Cooling and hardening of magma below the earth's surface. C) Melting- previously formed rock melts due to high temperatures resulting from depth, pressure, and or nearness of magma; the previous rock melts, cools and recrystallizes. D) Cooling and hardening of lava above the earth's surface. Which of the following terms and phrases is associated with minerals or is a type of mineral? natural non-living material with a uniform structure throughout A) forms rocks B) diamond C) igneous D) sedimentary The mid-ocean ridge has been created at the type of plate boundary where the sea floor is split and moving apart. Out of this split magma rises, cools, and forms new sea floor. What type of boundary is this? A) collisional zone B) divergent boundary C) subduction zone D) transform boundary Following an earth movement, an earthquake, seismic waves begin to move out from the point of the movement. The type of wave which travels out in all directions from the point of movement is the __________.

Answers:1) (C) A shield volcano (cinder cones are formed by lava 'spitting' out and falling around the cone. The descirption fits a shield volcano like those on Hawaii better. 2: (A) rocks are not part of soil 3: (B) since they are properties of minerals we use them to identify minerals. 4: (B,C AND E) Sedimentary rocks are formed by weathering of pre-existing rocks at the surface, erosion or transport of the weathered material and its deposition in a sedimentary basin. 5: B, C and D are all igneous processes in that they involve the melting of pre-existing rocks, and the crystallisation of the melt or magma. 6: A and B: diamond is a mineral, and minerals are what make up rocks. 7: B - it is a divergent boundary because the newly formed crust 'pushes' the two plates away from each other.i.e. causes them to diverge. 8: Both P-waves and S-waves move out in all directions from the focus.

Question:I have taken photos in greyscale of wafer surfaces. I believe I can use Matlab to read the image and plot a 3D diagram. At the same time I need MatLab to tell me the roughness by averaging the depth of grey over an area of the image. How can I do it? I know nuts about programming.

Answers:You can use MatLab in that way. How to average depends on the file format. If there is one color value per pixel and your color data is stored in the array named "data" then mean(mean(data)) should get you the mean value. There is a delightful text "Digital Image Processing using MatLab", by Gonzalez R. C., Woods R. E., and Eddins S. L. (2004) Pearson Its got a TON of image processing content involving MatLab. You can probably get a decent used copy at half.com.

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