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3 isomers of pentane

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From Wikipedia

Isomer

In chemistry, isomers (from Greek ισομε�ης, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers, etc. (see chart below). There are two main forms of isomerism: structural isomerism and stereoisomerism (spatial isomerism).

Forms

Structural isomers

In structural isomers, sometimes referred to as constitutional isomers, the atoms and functional groups are joined together in different ways. Structural isomers have different IUPAC names and may or may not belong to the same functional group. This group includes chain isomerism whereby hydrocarbon chains have variable amounts of branching; position isomerism which deals with the position of a functional group on a chain; and functional group isomerism in which one functional group is split up into different ones.

In skeletal isomers the main carbon chain is different between the two isomers. This type of isomerism is most identifiable in secondary and tertiary alcohol isomers.

Tautomers are structural isomers of the same chemical substance that spontaneously interconvert with each other, even when pure. They have different chemical properties, and consequently, distinct reactions characteristic to each form are observed. If the interconversion reaction is fast enough, tautomers cannot be isolated from each other. An example is when they differ by the position of a proton, such as in keto/enol tautomerism, where the proton is alternately on the carbon or oxygen.

Stereoisomers

In stereoisomers the bond structure is the same, but the geometrical positioning of atoms and functional groups in space differs. This class includes enantiomers where different isomers are non-superimposable mirror-images of each other, and diastereomers when they are not.

Diastereomerism is again subdivided into "cis-trans isomers"", which have restricted rotation within the molecule (typically isomers containing a double bond) and "conformational isomers" (conformers), which can rotate about one or more single bonds within the molecule.

An obsolete term for "cis-trans isomerism" is "geometric isomers".
For compounds with more than two substituents E-Z notation is used instead of cis and trans. If possible, E and Z (written in italic type) is also preferred in compounds with two substituents.

In octahedralcoordination compounds fac- (with facial ligands) and mer- (with meridional ligands) isomers occur.

Note that although conformers can be referred to as stereoisomers, they are not stable isomers, since bonds in conformers can easily rotate thus converting one conformer to another which can be either diastereomeric or enantiomeric to the original one.

While structural isomers typically have different chemical properties, stereoisomers behave identically in most chemical reactions, except in their reaction with other stereoisomers. Enzymes however can distinguish between different enantiomers of a compound, and organisms often prefer one isomer over the other. Some stereoisomers also differ in the way they rotate polarized light.

Isomerisation

Isomerisation is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms are rearranged. In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerisation occurs spontaneously. Many isomers are equal or roughly equal in bond energy, and so exist in roughly equal amounts, provided that they can interconvert relatively freely, that is the energy barrier between the two isomers is not too high. When the isomerisation occurs intramolecularly it is considered a rearrangement reaction.

An example of an organometallic isomerisation is the production of decaphenylferrocene, [(η5-C5Ph5)2Fe] from its linkage isomer.

Instances of Isomerization

  • Isomerizations in hydrocarbon cracking. This is usually employed in organic chemistry, where fuels, such as pentane, a straight-chain isomer, are heated in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The resulting mixture of straight- and branched-chain isomers then have to be separated. An industrial process is also the isomerisation of n-butane into isobutane.
Pentane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The boiling points of the pentane isomers range from about 9 to 36 C. As is the ... n-pentane, the result is a mixture of the 1-, 2-, and 3-chloropentanes, ...


From Yahoo Answers

Question:

Answers:CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 n-pentane CH2CHCH2CH3 isopentane or 2-methylbutane ........CH3 ........CH3 CH3CCH3 neopentane ot 2, 2 dimethyl propane ........CH3

Question:Pentane has 3 isomers, the boiling points vary from 36.1*C for the 5 carbon straight chain to 27.8*C for the 4 carbon chain and 9.5*C for the 3 carbon chain. Why would you expect this to be the case?

Answers:As the carbon chains become smaller, they become more spherical. The Van der Waals attractive interactions between hydrocarbon molecules thus decrease and, therefore, the amount of energy needed to overcome them is reduced. Hence, lower boiling points. Oh, and this argument holds generally for isomers of any hydrocarbon, not just isomers of pentane.

Question:Which of the following compounds is a correctly-named isomer of pentane? A) 2-ethylpentane B) isobutylethane C) 2-methylbutane D) 2-methyloctane E) 3-methylbutane

Answers:The answer is C.) 2-Methylbutane

Question:The % of 1-chloropentane is 22%. Assuming the secondary hydrogens in pentane are equally reactive to monochlorination, what is the % of 3-chloropentane in the mixture? A) 48% B) 26% C) 22% D) 14%

Answers:26% Reasoning: there is 100-22=78% left for 2-chloropentane and 3-chloropentane. However, there are four hydrogen atoms available to make 2-chloropentane and two for 3-chloropentane. One third of 78% is 26%.

From Youtube

Cis Trans Isomers :1. Bruice, Paula Yurkanis. (2006). Essential organic chemistry. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 2. Callahan, Maureen. (2008). Fast facts on fats: What to eat, what to avoid. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from CNN.com: www.cnn.com diet.fitness/07/22/cl. fat.facts/index.html 3. Essential fatty acid. (nd). Retrieved November 15, 2008, from the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: en.wikipedia.org 4. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2006). Trans fat: Avoid this cholesterol double whammy. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from MayoClinic.com: www.mayoclinic.com /trans-fat/CL0032 5. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008). Butter vs. margarine: Which is better for my heart? Retrieved November 15, 2008, from MayoClinic.com: www.mayoclinic.com /butter-vs-margarine/AN00835