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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
Developing a lesson plan
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
- Title of the lesson
- Timerequired to complete the lesson
- List of required materials
- List of objectives, which may bebehavioral objectives (what thestudent can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
- The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons
- An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas
- Independentpracticethat allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
- A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
- An evaluationcomponent, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
- Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving
- A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson
A well developed lesson plan
A well developed lesson plan reflects interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together. School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.
Setting an objective
The first thing a teacher must do is decide on the lesson plan's focus. The teacher creates one idea or question they want the students to explore or answer. Next, the teacher creates classroom activities that correlate with the established idea or question. This includes individual and group activities. Having established these activities, the teacher identifies what language arts skills the lesson plan must cover. After the teacher completes these activities, they must ensure the lesson plan adheres to the best practices used in language arts. This includes conducting research on what teaching methods result in a high success rate for students. The teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher must also ensure their student achievement expectations are reasonable.
Selecting lesson plan material
A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students.
Types of Assignments
The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:
- Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions.
- Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four.
- Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan.
- Independent work—students complete assignments individually.
- Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from one another.
- Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline.
These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructorâ€™s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:
- What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels?
- What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment?
- How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback?
- What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice
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Answers:* use different shades of green shamrocks and make patterns with them...ABAB or AABAAB * Use shamrock or theme related mini erasers or other manipulatives and have them make a "chart"...put number cards in order (they can do this according to their ability 0-5 or 0-10 or higher) and then place the corresponding number of manipulatives in a vertical line above each number. We did this recently with transportation manipulatives...we incorporated patterns in their lines, odd and even numbers (putting them in pairs to see the buddies), which number has more less, etc. * We are doing this activity this week as well... folding a piece of construction paper in half (4"x11"). Let them snip cut up to the fold to make "grass" then inside use bug stickers to make patterns and then fold the grass over top of the bugs. * I put in shapes and colors into my "math" so we also do a Shamrock Surprise activity where I have different shape rubbing plates (made with glitter glue on index cards) and a few shamrocks as well. I tape them to a wall/table and put paper over top. They use colorful crayons to find the shapes (rubbing) and then we use it as a review activity. * simple addition/subtraction with shamrocks or other spring manipulatives. * Cover 100 (or less). I make a theme related board with usually 25 squares/rectangles. Then we roll a dice, count how many dots and cover the corresponding number of squares with a theme manipulatives...so shamrock or flower/bug eraser...we take turns rolling the dice and covering the rectangles until one of the children covers their whole board. * You can make Shamrock/Spring Shakers by cutting out 2 simple shapes and gluing to paper plates. Add beans and staple together. The hold up a number card and have them review their number recognition, etc and shake their shakers that many times. You can play music like "freeze" and during the freezing part hold up a card and do that many actions. It can be done for transitions or even small group. * www.childcareland.com has many free printables for spring/shamrocks that you can make into games. Good luck!
Answers:I ran a day care and we did hand prints. We painted the kids hands with regular school paints and just pressed their hands to a nice construction paper and a poem: Sometimes you get discouraged Because I am so small And always leave my fingerprints On furniture and walls. But every day I'm growing - I'll be grown some day And all those tiny handprints Will surely fade away. So here's a little handprint Just so you can recall Exactly how my fingers looked When I was very small these are web sites that give you more ideas.
Answers:Here is a link to The Learning Station's site that contains FREE printable activity sheets with beautifully illustrated theme planned preschool activities... art, science, math, music, language arts, simple sign language, literature, cooking without sugar and so much more! And you can print out each fun page and share them with the parents too! They will LOVE you for thinking about them! http://learningstationmusic.com/printabl Make sure you check out the Tony Chestnut activity sheet. It contains all of the lyrics and movements to this HIT preschool song, art and extended activities! If you do this song you will be a MAJOR hit!!! And if you want to see it performed go to YouTube where everyone is performing it! Make sure you print out the movements for the parents! Here's a link to a preschool teacher demonstrating Tony Chestnut: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p81B5RkF_yk. Most important have FUN. I'm certain you'll do GREAT!
Answers:What grade(s) would the lesson focus on? You may want to look up the educational standards for Minnesota as a start. I've taught my 3rd grade class how to interpret maps, learn about communities, then eventually making their own map and building a model community out of that. (That's Quadrant D for those of you into the relationship/relevance stuff.) Start by asking "What is a community?" Lead the discussion that a community is a group of people working together for a common goal. Do this by asking "What do we need in a community?" Homes to live in, stores to shop at, banks, parks for recreation, gas stations, restaurants, etc. Let the students brainstorm the places their parents goes to for errands and business. What are places for the children? Schools, library, parks, perhaps video game store. Now you've got your community going. Students need to learn the map. It is abstract so you'd need plenty of examples. This book is a good start "Me on the Map" by Joan Sweeney. Teach the parts of a map (TODAL) T=Title O=Orientation (compass rose) D=Date (that the map was made/revised) A=Author (for point of view purposes) L=Legend (or Key) If you have internet, share Google Earth to compare and contrast a map with a real image. As a final assessment, allow the students to build their own community. They'd work in groups of 4-5 to make a map per group. Start with that list of places that were part of the community. Create a map of the fictious community on a large white construction paper. I used different size post-its to represent houses or businesses to keep scale. Those 1" x 1 1/2" post-its are homes. Slightly bigger may be restaurants or stores. Then those 6" ones might be Wal-Mart for example. Use meter sticks to trace out streets. The community doesn't need to have everything on the list, mainly places to work and live. The proportion of homes and businesses should roughly be equal. Don't forget TODAL on the maps! The fun begins. The class as a whole will now build a 3-D model of their community. Have them vote on the best map. Use that as the basis for the model. Don't stress to match it exactly to the map. Just allow the students to have fun building the model. Use those 1/2 pint milk cartons the students drink out of for lunch. Those would be the homes or small businesses. Bigger buildings might be 2-3 cartons put together. Using construction paper, and a bunch of students imagination, build your community! Remember the streets! Cut strips of black construction paper about 3" wide. Hot wheel cars are the perfect size for this community. Teach scale. People can't be as tall as houses and cars can't be THAT big. Assign one place per student. So in a class of 26, there would be roughly 13 homes and 13 businesses (which includes a school, library, police station, etc.) Get a large flattened card board to build everything on. Good luck!