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Fire-resistance rating - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 Common rating systems; 2 International fire-resistance ratings .... A Class 150-2 Hour vault must keep the temperature below 150 F. for at least two hours ...

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Abdominal Wall Defect Repair

Abdominal wall defect repair is a surgery performed to correct one of two birth defects of the abdominal wall: gastroschisis or omphalocele. Depending on the defect treated, the procedure is also known as omphalocele repair/closure or gastroschisis repair/closure. For some unknown reason, while in utero, the abdominal wall muscles do not form correctly. And, when the abdominal wall is incompletely formed at birth, the internal organs of the infant can either protrude into the umbilical cord (omphalocele) or to the side of the navel (gastroschisis). The size of an omphalocele varies—some are very small, about the size of a ping pong ball, while others may be as big as a grapefruit. Omphalocele repair is performed to repair the omphalocele defect in which all or part of the bowel and other internal organs lie on the outside of the abdomen in a hernia (sac). Gastroschisis repair is performed to repair the other abdominal wall defect through which the bowel thrusts out with no protective sac present. Gastroschisis is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical intervention. Surgery for abdominal wall defects aims to return the abdominal organs back to the abdominal cavity, and to repair the defect if possible. It can also be performed to create a pouch to protect the intestines until they are inserted back into the abdomen. Abdominal wall defects occurs in the United States at a rate of one case per 2,000 births, which means that some 2,360 cases are diagnosed per year. Mothers below the age of 20 are four times as likely as mothers in their late twenties to give birth to affected babies. Abdominal wall defect surgery is performed soon after birth. The protruding organs are covered with dressings, and a tube is inserted into the stomach to prevent the baby from choking or breathing in the contents of the stomach into the lungs. The surgery is performed under general anesthesia so that the baby will not feel pain. First, the pediatric surgeon enlarges the hole in the abdominal wall in order to examine the bowel for damage or other birth defects. Damaged portions of the bowel are removed and the healthy bowel is reconnected with stitches. The exposed organs are replaced within the abdominal cavity, and the opening is closed. Sometimes closure of the opening is not possible, for example when the abdominal cavity is too small or when the organs are too large or swollen to close the skin. In such cases, the surgeon will place a plastic covering pouch, commonly called a silo because of its shape, over the abdominal organs on the outside of the infant to protect the organs. Gradually, the organs are squeezed through the pouch into the opening and returned to the body. This procedure can take up to a week, and final closure may be performed a few weeks later. More surgery may be required to repair the abdominal muscles at a later time. Prenatal screening can detect approximately 85% of abdominal wall defects. Gastroschisis and omphalocele are usually diagnosed by ultrasound examinations before birth. These tests can determine the size of the abdominal wall defect and identify the affected organs. The surgery is performed immediately after delivery, as soon as the newborn is stable. After surgery, the infant is transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) and placed in an incubator to keep warm and prevent infection. Oxygen is provided. When organs are placed back into the abdominal cavity, this may increase pressure on the abdomen and make breathing difficult. In such cases, the infant is provided with a breathing tube and ventilator until the swelling of the abdominal organs has decreased. Intravenous fluids, antibiotics , and pain medication are also administered. A tube is also placed in the stomach to empty gastric secretions. Feedings are started very slowly, using a nasal tube as soon as bowel function starts. Babies born with omphaloceles can stay in the hospital from one week to one month after surgery, depending on the size of the defect. Babies are discharged from the hospital when they are taking all their feedings by mouth and gaining weight. The risks of abdominal wall repair surgery include peritonitis and temporary paralysis of the small bowel. If a large segment of the small intestine is damaged, the baby may develop short bowel syndrome and have digestive problems. In most cases, the defect can be corrected with surgery. The outcome depends on the amount of damage to the bowel. The size of the abdominal wall defect, the extent to which organs protrude out of the abdomen, and the presence of other birth defects influence the outcome of the surgery. The occurrence of other birth defects is uncommon in infants with gastroschisis, and 85% survive. Approximately half of the babies diagnosed with omphalocele have heart defects or other birth defects, and approximately 60% survive to age one. Gastroschisis is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate surgical intervention. There is no alternative to surgery for both gastroschisis and omphalocele. iannucci, lisa. birth defects. berkeley heights: enslow publishers inc., 2000. Kurchubasche, Arlet G. "The fetus with an abdominal wall defect." Medicine & Health/Rhode Island 84 (2001): 159–161. Lenke, R. "Benefits of term delivery in infants with antenatally diagnosed gastroschisis." Obstetrics and Gynecology 101 (February 2003): 418–419. Sydorak, R. M., A. Nijagal, L. Sbragia, et al. "Gastroschisis: small hole, big cost." Journal of Pediatric Surgery 37 (December 2002): 1669–1672. White, J. J. "Morbidity in infants with antenatally-diagnosed anterior abdominal wall defects." Pediatric Surgery International 17 (September 2001): 587–591. American Academy of Pediatrics. 141 Northwest Point Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098. (847) 434-4000. . "Abdominal Defects." Medical and Scientific Information Online, Inc. [cited April 8, 2003]. . National Birth Defects Prevention Network. January 27, 2003 [cited April 8, 2003]. . Monique Laberge, Ph.D. Abdominal wall defect surgery is performed by a pediatric surgeon. A pediatric surgeon is specialized in the surgical care of children. He or she must have graduated from medical school, and completed five years of postgraduate general surgery training in an accredited training program. A pediatric surgeon must complete an additional accredited two-year fellowship program in pediatric surgery and be board-eligible or board-certified in general surgery. (Board certification is granted when a fully trained surgeon has taken and passed first a written, then an oral examination.) Once the general surgery boards are passed, a fellowship-trained pediatric surgeon becomes eligible to take the Pediatric Surgery examination. Other credentials may include membership in the American College of Surgeons, the American Pediatric Surgical Association, and/or the American Academy of Pediatrics. Each of these organizations require that fellows meet well-established standards of training, clinical knowledge, and professional conduct. If prenatal screening indicates that abdominal wall defects are present in the fetus, delivery should occur at a hospital with an intensive care nursery (NICU) and a pediatric surgeon on staff.

From Yahoo Answers


Answers:Each municipality has its own requirements. Try to find a local contractor (builder) who can answer your questions.

Question:I have an 8" CMU party wall with each unit being 21' wide. I need to span a steel beam across each unit by attaching them to the CMU party wall which would either rest on a plate in a pocket within the wall or somehow span through the wall. Either way there has to than be a 2 hour fire rate.

Answers:I am not an engineer or architect but a place to start is the building code for the local where you are building. There are big differences in what is allowed when it comes to steel beams and load bearing CMU walls. One thing to keep in mind is that steel beams can conduct enough heat energy to start fires on the other side of an otherwise fireproof wall. I would look at making sure that the beam is not continuous from one side of the wall to the other.

Question:I am installing a access control system in a hospital and the manufacturer only provides a plastic back box when installing a control panel flush mount. The hospital does not what unneeded protrusions coming out of the wall, i.e. this control panel surface mounted. And the manufacturer has only told me that it is a PVC box that is 6x4x2. So I am looking for a solution that will allow me to maintain the 1 hour fire rating that is required by the hospital and use the plastic box the manufacturer provides which is essential to mounting the control panel. Thanks in advance. In response to Joe - Unfortunately I am unable to. The walls are finished and there are patients currently occupying the area I am working in.

Answers:If you are planing to recess the plastic box into the wall, you will need to mount it inside of a metal box, to maintain the fire rating. You can go to a machine/ welding shop and have them make you a 14 gage steel box, either out of mild steel or stainless steel. I would opt for the stainless steel, it will be easier to clean, as this is a hospital setting. Make the box with flanges about one inch wide around the opening, on all four sides. This will give you a means to fasten the flanges to the wall face/ surface. Wingman

Question:Hello I need 1 hour fire rated product on a curved wall with 18 inch diameter. The curve is between the ceiling and a wall. It needs to be 1 hour fire rated ULC approved. approx. 30 feet square is the area. Any suggestions? Are we using a fire rating if we bend the 5/8" drywall or is it still compliant with the ULC standard?

Answers:To get the 1 hour rating on a wall, you need to use 5/8" Firecode drywall. The tight radius presents a problem, but it's not too hard to overcome. Wet the backside of the sheet, and using a strap clamp start to bend the sheet. Don't try to get it all at once. When it dries, wet it again, and tighten the clamp. Repeat until you have your radius. Hope this helps. EDIT: Bending the rock will not affect the fire rating, as long as you don't break the sheet. That's the reason for doing this in stages rather than all at once. Good luck.

From Youtube

Basic & Downlight Mitt installation, for thermal insulation and fire rating of 2 hours :The Halogen and LED Mitt is the only product on the market to tackle the problem of downlights head on with an R-Value and a Fire Rating. This video Illustrates how easy it is to install or retrofit this product. The downlight mitt can be purchased in two forms. The LED Mitt and the Halogen Mitt. These are a complete solution to retrofit your existing fittings or to retrofit a new implementation of Downlights. The solution can be installed from above or below the ceiling. The Halogen Lamps which must be used with the cover, forces most of the heat from the Lamp downwards into your living area. The lamps are included with the purchase of the cover. (20W or 35W) goto efficiencymatrix.com for more information.

36 Hour Fire :A video project we had for class