12 cranial nerves and their functions
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Answers:I Olfactory - olfaction (smell) II Optic - vision (Contain 38% of all the axons connecting to the brain.) III Oculomotor - eyelid and eyeball muscles IV Trochlear - eyeball muscles V Trigeminal - facial and mouth sensation , chewing VI Abducens - eyeball movement VII Facial - taste, facial muscles and salivary glands VIII Auditory - hearing and balance IX Glossopharyngeal - taste, swallowing X Vagus - main nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) XI Accessory - moving head and shoulder XII Hypoglossal - tongue muscles
Answers:The 12 pairs of cranial nerves are traditionally abbreviated by the corresponding Roman numerals. They are numbered according to where their nuclei lie in the brain stem, e.g. Cranial Nerve III (the Oculomotor nerve) leaves the brainstem at a higher position than Cranial nerve XII, whose origin is located more caudally (lower) than the other cranial nerves. # Name Nuclei Function 0 Cranial nerve zero (CN0 is not traditionally recognized.) olfactory trigone, medial olfactory gyrus, and lamina terminalis Still controversial New research indicates CN0 may play a role in the detection of pheromones I Olfactory nerve Anterior olfactory nucleus Transmits the sense of smell; Located in olfactory foramina of ethmoid II Optic nerve Lateral geniculate nucleus Transmits visual information to the brain; Located in optic canal III Oculomotor nerve Oculomotor nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleus Innervates levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements; Located in superior orbital fissure IV Trochlear nerve Trochlear nucleus Innervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, pulls laterally, and intorts the eyeball; Located in superior orbital fissure V Trigeminal nerve Principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, Spinal trigeminal nucleus, Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, Trigeminal motor nucleus Receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication; Located in superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic branch), foramen rotundum (maxillary branch), and foramen ovale (mandibular branch) VI Abducens nerve Abducens nucleus Innervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye; Located in superior orbital fissure VII Facial nerve Facial nucleus, Solitary nucleus, Superior salivary nucleus Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression and stapedius, receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, and provides secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland; Located and runs through internal acoustic canal to facial canal and exits at stylomastoid foramen VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve (or auditory-vestibular nerve or statoacustic nerve) Vestibular nuclei, Cochlear nuclei Senses sound, rotation and gravity (essential for balance & movement; Located in internal acoustic canal IX Glossopharyngeal nerve Nucleus ambiguus, Inferior salivary nucleus, Solitary nucleus Receives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid gland, and provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus (essential for tactile, pain, and thermal sensation). Sensation is relayed to opposite thalamus and some hypothalamic nuclei. Located in jugular foramen X Vagus nerve Nucleus ambiguus, Dorsal motor vagal nucleus, Solitary nucleus Supplies branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles; provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure; and receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis. A major function: controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate. Symptoms of damage: dysphagia (swallowing problems). Located in jugular foramen XI Accessory nerve (or cranial accessory nerve or spinal accessory nerve) Nucleus ambiguus, Spinal accessory nucleus Controls muscles of the neck and overlaps with functions of the vagus. Examples of symptoms of damage: inability to shrug, weak head movement, velopharyngeal insufficiency; Located in jugular foramen XII Hypoglossal nerve Hypoglossal nucleus Provides motor innervation to the muscles of the tongue and other glossal muscles. Important for swallowing (bolus formation) and speech articulation. Located in hypoglossal canal Source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cranial_nerve
Answers:Cranial nerves: 1 - Olfactory (smell) 2 - Optic (Vision) 3 - Oculomotor (Most eyeball muscles except #4,6, & parasympathetic reflexes) 4 - Trochlear (superior oblique eye muscle) 5 - Trigeminal nerve (Muscles of mastication, etc) 6 - Abducens (lateral rectus eye muscle) 7 - Facial (Facial expression muscles, etc) 8 - Vestibulocochlear (hearing, balance) 9 - Glossopharyngeal (Tongue and pharynx, etc.) 10 - Vagus (Parasympathetic to the main organs: heart, guts, etc) 11 - Accessory (i think it gets the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles) 12 - Hypoglossal (Tongue muscles) (There's much more to know about each CN, but above is just the basics I happened to remember.) A. The only thing I know about memory is that it is supposedly located in the hippocampus deeper in the brain. B. Eye adduction is done by the medial rectus muscle, innervated by the oculomotor CN III. C. Drooping of the eyelid is facial nerve CN VII. D. Pupil constriction is the parasympathetic action of the oculomotor CN III. E. The glossopharygeal CN IX does posterior 1/3 of the tongue's taste F. Numbness in the cheek is due to loss of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve CN V2. G. If the tongue deviates to the left, there must be weakness on the right side. (I see a pattern on the right side.) This is due to the hypoglossal nerve deficiency on that side.
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