Category Archives: State Boards

May Day * International Workers Day

The first of May is known as May Day or International Workers Day. The International Workers’ Day commemorates the brave struggles of people all over the world for better working conditions and human rights. Even 100 years ago, oppressive power-mongers exploited people. At the height of the industrial revolution, many people were forced to work for long hours in sweat factories along with abysmal compensation. A small minority of people cheated and lived on the blood, sweat and tears of the working class. This was one of the reasons for the anger and fury that gradually led to the end of monarchism and people’s revolutions like the French Revolution, Russian Revolution and freedom struggles. These revolutions and struggles are still going on as the world is still under the clutches of neo-imperialism and its avatars. May Day or International Workers’ … Continue reading

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William Shakespeare * Introduction – Julius Caesar * CBSE Class 10 English

William Shakespeare is one of the world’s most famous and brilliant playwrights. Even after 400 years (died April 23, 1616), his plays are studied in English and translated plays are studied in other language mediums. William Shakespeare was brilliant at communicating how human beings behaved in all sorts of challenging situations and the dynamics between them. A very famous tragedy play that he wrote was Julius Caesar. An excerpt from the play Julius Caesar can be found in the CBSE Class 10 English textbook. It is a wonderful way to introduce Shakespearean plays and is laid out in a thoughtful and easy-to-read manner. Julius Caesar is in fact a very important play because it discusses democratic ideals, armed conflicts, politics, mob mentality and human dynamics during political upheavals. The play “Julius Caesar” also explores the psychology of people involved in … Continue reading

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William Shakespeare * Seven Ages * CBSE Class 9 English

William Shakespeare, the brilliant playwright, is introduced through the CBSE board for class 9 students in a thoughtful and easy manner. An excerpt from William Shakespeare’s famous comedy play “As You Like It” titled Seven Ages is discussed. The verses in the form of a monologue portray the experiences and phases of human beings under confining and challenging conditions. In the play “As You Like It,” the character Jacques gives out an impassioned monologue. The monologue begins with a powerful metaphor. A metaphor is a phrase which is used by poets to indirectly make comparisons to communicate in a vivid manner. What would you compare the world to, the human beings who are born, live and die and life stages? Let us reflect on this and read the opening lines of the famous monologue of the play “As You Like … Continue reading

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World Renowned * William Shakespeare * 400 years afterwards

William Shakespeare is still remembered 400 years after he passed away on April 23, 1616. In fact, William Shakespeare is still regarded as one of the most world-renowned and brilliant playwrights and poets. Shakespeare was born in Statford-Upon-Avon in Warwickshire in England in 1564. His father was an aldernman (a member of a municipal assembly) and a glovemaker. His mother came from a wealthy landlord’s family. William went to one of the government-run neighborhood schools during the so-called Elizabethan era. William Shakespeare was very observant of the human beings he came across and met. William also studied literature in school and afterwards and had a very good knowledge of previous literature. Famous plays that he wrote include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Othello and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. He wrote a total of about 38 plays and 154 sonnets. His plays include … Continue reading

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Essay * Algebra of Infinite Justice * End of Imagination by Arundhati Roy

Arundhati Roy won the Booker Prize for her astounding book “God of Small Things.” Arundhati is also a brilliant and satirical essay writer. Her book “The Algebra of Infinite Justice” contains many political essays filled with satire and immense passion. The title of the book, “Algebra of Infinite Justice” is in itself very thoughtful and satirical. Will human beings need to continue to sacrifice their lives, die and rise again, until justice, freedom and egalitarianism is achieved? Also, how should human beings fight for justice and principle-centeredness? Mahatma Gandhi and many unsung freedom fighters have taught us that “an eye for an eye” or a “tooth for a tooth” can turn the whole world “blind,” that is, a place without the wonderful presence of human beings. In a similar way, a nuclear bomb can destroy and ravage the whole Earth. … Continue reading

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Essay * Turning Point of My Life * Mark Twain

Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) was a humorous writer, even though his life was challenging. Like clowns who try to cheer us up amidst sinister and wicked conditioning forces but are grieving, Mark Twain communicated in a humorous and satirical manner. Yes, as human beings, emotions like sadness, happiness, anger and so on come naturally to us. In fact, the word emoji or emoticon is the most recent word added to our world communication channels. On this note, let us read the essay, Turning Point of My Life by Mark Twain. Essay * Turning Point of My Life * Mark Twain In the essay, Mark Twain begins by talking about the the “crossing of the Rubicon” and the “human race’s life chain” in a humorous and satirical manner. Well, “crossing of the Rubicon” is one so-called “chapter” in how human … Continue reading

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